Argument quality in Tanzanian parliamentary discourse in Kiswahili in budget speeches and debates

Nyanda, Davis (2016-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENLGISH SUMMARY: The present study examines the nature of argument quality properties in Tanzanian parliamentary discourse in Kiswahili. The study applies the pragma-dialectical theory to analyse two Annual Budget Speeches (ABS) and debates about the speeches. The study focuses on the manifestation of three arguments in the ABS and the related debates: argument from cause and effect, argument from authority, and argument from example. The corpus of two ABS and the related debates in the Tanzanian parliament included in the analysis is based on the 2011/2012 Tanzanian annual budget parliamentary sitting. The data analysed was obtained from the Tanzanian National Assembly Hansard records (both printed and electronic versions). In the pragma-dialectical theory, there are stipulated criteria for evaluating whether arguments are properly applied in argumentative discourse such as parliamentary speeches and debates. The study specifically examines the extent to which ministers and MPs utilise the three arguments in the ABS and the related debates, and the extent to which these arguments conform to, or deviate from, the criteria established in the pragma-dialectical theory. The research further investigates the strategic manoeuvring the ministers and MPs make in the ABS and the related debates in their efforts to influence their target audience. The study covers several facets of the pragma-dialectical theory in the analysis of the ABS and the related debates. However, a flexible application of the criteria postulated in the pragma-dialectical theory for evaluating the three arguments is demonstrated, rejecting strict application of the criteria as proposed in the theory. The study reveals that the three arguments vary in the extent to which the ministers and MPs apply them. Argument from authority appears in a few instances in one of the speeches and the debates. In the case of argument from example, it is applied to a certain extent in one of the speeches and the debates. The analysis further indicates that argument from cause and effect is frequently utilised in the ABS and the related debates. In addition, the analysis shows that the ministers and MPs (re)package their arguments in such a way that would convince their target audience to accept them. The ministers and MPs achieve this by manoeuvring strategically in terms of topical potential, adaptation to audience demand and presentational devices. The current study suggests various dimensions of the pragma-dialectical theory could be enriched. These include making the theory less prescriptive in the evaluation of arguments, expansion of the evaluation criteria related to argument from authority, and expansion of the theory to recognise variation in the extent to which arguments are utilised in argumentative discourse such as parliamentary discourse.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie ondersoek die aard van argument kwaliteit eienskappe in Tanzaniese parlementêre diskoers in Kiswahili. Die studie maak gebruik van die Pragma-dialektiese teorie van argumentasie in die ontleding van twee Jaarlikse Begrotingtoesprake (JBT) en die verwante debate oor die toesprake. Die fokus van die studie is op die manifestasie van drie tipes argumente, naamlik: argument vanaf oorsaak en effek, argument vanaf outoriteit, en argument vanaf voorbeeld in die JBT en debate. In die Pragma-dialektiese teorie is daar gestipuleerde kriteria vir die evaluering van die mate waartoe elke argument wat ontleed word in die studie gepas toegepas word in die argumentatiewe diskoers soos parlementêre toesprake en debate. Die studie ondersoek in die besonder, die mate waartoe ministers en lede van die parlement gebruik maak van die drie tipes argumente in die JBT en debate, en die mate waartoe hierdie argumente konformeer, of afwyk, van die kriteria gestel in die Pragma-dialektiese teorie. Die studie ondersoek verder die strategiese manuvrering van die ministers en lede van die parlement in die JBS en debate in hul pogings om hul teikengehoor te beïnvloed. Die proefskrif ontleed ‘n korpus van twee JBSe debate in die Tanzaniese parlement vanuit die 2011-2012 parlementêre sittings. Die data wat ontleed word in hierdie studie is verkry uit die Tanzaniese Nasionale Parlement se Hansard verslae (sowel die gedrukte as elektroniese weergawes). Die studie se omvang dek verskeie fasette van die Pragma-dialektiese teorie in die ontleding van JBSe en debatte. Die studie demonstreer die manifestasie van ‘n buigsame toepassing van die kriteria gepostuleer in die Pragma-dialektiese teorie vir die evaluering van argumente in die lig daarvan dat die kriteria nie streng toegepas word nie. Die studie bring voorts aan die lig dat argumente wissel in die mate waartoe dit manifesteer in die toesprake van ministers en lede van die parlement. Argument vanaf outoriteit verskyn in enkele gevalle in een van die toesprake en debate. In die geval van argument vanaf voorbeeld, word dit gevind tot ‘n bepaalde mate in een van die toesprake en verbandhoudende debate. Die ontleding dui voorts aan dat die ministers en lede van parlement hulle argumente sodanig (her)verpak dat dit hulle teikengehoor oortuig om hulle argumente te aanvaar. Dit word gedoen deur die ministers en lede van parlement strategies te manuvreer met betrekking tot onderwerp potensiaal, aanpassing by gehoor eise en aanbiedingswyses. Die studie bevind dat verskeie demensies van die Pragma-dialektiese verryk kan word. Dit sluit in dat die teorie as minder voorskriftelik beskou word in die evaluering van argumente, die uitbreiding van die evalueringkriteria betreffende argument vanaf outoriteit, en die uitbreiding van die teorie ten einde variasie te betrek in die mate waartoe argumente aangewend word in argumentatiewe diskoers soos parlementêre diskoers.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100406
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