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# Doctoral Degrees (Statistics and Actuarial Science)

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### Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Statistics and Actuarial Science) by Subject "Estimation theory"

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- ItemAspects of model development using regression quantiles and elemental regressions(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2007-03) Ranganai, Edmore; De Wet, Tertius; Van Vuuren, J.O.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Statistics and Actuarial Science.
Show more ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is well known that ordinary least squares (OLS) procedures are sensitive to deviations from the classical Gaussian assumptions (outliers) as well as data aberrations in the design space. The two major data aberrations in the design space are collinearity and high leverage. Leverage points can also induce or hide collinearity in the design space. Such leverage points are referred to as collinearity influential points. As a consequence, over the years, many diagnostic tools to detect these anomalies as well as alternative procedures to counter them were developed. To counter deviations from the classical Gaussian assumptions many robust procedures have been proposed. One such class of procedures is the Koenker and Bassett (1978) Regressions Quantiles (RQs), which are natural extensions of order statistics, to the linear model. RQs can be found as solutions to linear programming problems (LPs). The basic optimal solutions to these LPs (which are RQs) correspond to elemental subset (ES) regressions, which consist of subsets of minimum size to estimate the necessary parameters of the model. On the one hand, some ESs correspond to RQs. On the other hand, in the literature it is shown that many OLS statistics (estimators) are related to ES regression statistics (estimators). Therefore there is an inherent relationship amongst the three sets of procedures. The relationship between the ES procedure and the RQ one, has been noted almost “casually” in the literature while the latter has been fairly widely explored. Using these existing relationships between the ES procedure and the OLS one as well as new ones, collinearity, leverage and outlier problems in the RQ scenario were investigated. Also, a lasso procedure was proposed as variable selection technique in the RQ scenario and some tentative results were given for it. These results are promising. Single case diagnostics were considered as well as their relationships to multiple case ones. In particular, multiple cases of the minimum size to estimate the necessary parameters of the model, were considered, corresponding to a RQ (ES). In this way regression diagnostics were developed for both ESs and RQs. The main problems that affect RQs adversely are collinearity and leverage due to the nature of the computational procedures and the fact that RQs’ influence functions are unbounded in the design space but bounded in the response variable. As a consequence of this, RQs have a high affinity for leverage points and a high exclusion rate of outliers. The influential picture exhibited in the presence of both leverage points and outliers is the net result of these two antagonistic forces. Although RQs are bounded in the response variable (and therefore fairly robust to outliers), outlier diagnostics were also considered in order to have a more holistic picture. The investigations used comprised analytic means as well as simulation. Furthermore, applications were made to artificial computer generated data sets as well as standard data sets from the literature. These revealed that the ES based statistics can be used to address problems arising in the RQ scenario to some degree of success. However, due to the interdependence between the different aspects, viz. the one between leverage and collinearity and the one between leverage and outliers, “solutions” are often dependent on the particular situation. In spite of this complexity, the research did produce some fairly general guidelines that can be fruitfully used in practice.Show more - ItemA framework for estimating risk(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-03) Kroon, Rodney Stephen; Steel, S. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Statistics and Actuarial Science.
Show more We consider the problem of model assessment by risk estimation. Various approaches to risk estimation are considered in a uni ed framework. This a discussion of various complexity dimensions and approaches to obtaining bounds on covering numbers is also presented. The second type of training sample interval estimator discussed in the thesis is Rademacher bounds. These bounds use advanced concentration inequalities, so a chapter discussing such inequalities is provided. Our discussion of Rademacher bounds leads to the presentation of an alternative, slightly stronger, form of the core result used for deriving local Rademacher bounds, by avoiding a few unnecessary relaxations. Next, we turn to a discussion of PAC-Bayesian bounds. Using an approach developed by Olivier Catoni, we develop new PAC-Bayesian bounds based on results underlying Hoe ding's inequality. By utilizing Catoni's concept of \exchangeable priors", these results allowed the extension of a covering number-based result to averaging classi ers, as well as its corresponding algorithm- and data-dependent result. The last contribution of the thesis is the development of a more exible shell decomposition bound: by using Hoe ding's tail inequality rather than Hoe ding's relative entropy inequality, we extended the bound to general loss functions, allowed the use of an arbitrary number of bins, and introduced between-bin and within-bin \priors". Finally, to illustrate the calculation of these bounds, we applied some of them to the UCI spam classi cation problem, using decision trees and boosted stumps. framework is an extension of a decision-theoretic framework proposed by David Haussler. Point and interval estimation based on test samples and training samples is discussed, with interval estimators being classi ed based on the measure of deviation they attempt to bound. The main contribution of this thesis is in the realm of training sample interval estimators, particularly covering number-based and PAC-Bayesian interval estimators. The thesis discusses a number of approaches to obtaining such estimators. The rst type of training sample interval estimator to receive attention is estimators based on classical covering number arguments. A number of these estimators were generalized in various directions. Typical generalizations included: extension of results from misclassi cation loss to other loss functions; extending results to allow arbitrary ghost sample size; extending results to allow arbitrary scale in the relevant covering numbers; and extending results to allow arbitrary choice of in the use of symmetrization lemmas. These extensions were applied to covering number-based estimators for various measures of deviation, as well as for the special cases of misclassi - cation loss estimators, realizable case estimators, and margin bounds. Extended results were also provided for strati cation by (algorithm- and datadependent) complexity of the decision class. In order to facilitate application of these covering number-based bounds,Show more - ItemSome statistical aspects of LULU smoothers(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-12) Jankowitz, Maria Dorothea; Conradie, W. J.; De Wet, Tertius; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Statistics and Actuarial Science.
Show more The smoothing of time series plays a very important role in various practical applications. Estimating the signal and removing the noise is the main goal of smoothing. Traditionally linear smoothers were used, but nonlinear smoothers became more popular through the years. From the family of nonlinear smoothers, the class of median smoothers, based on order statistics, is the most popular. A new class of nonlinear smoothers, called LULU smoothers, was developed by using the minimum and maximum selectors. These smoothers have very attractive mathematical properties. In this thesis their statistical properties are investigated and compared to that of the class of median smoothers. Smoothing, together with related concepts, are discussed in general. Thereafter, the class of median smoothers, from the literature is discussed. The class of LULU smoothers is defined, their properties are explained and new contributions are made. The compound LULU smoother is introduced and its property of variation decomposition is discussed. The probability distributions of some LULUsmoothers with independent data are derived. LULU smoothers and median smoothers are compared according to the properties of monotonicity, idempotency, co-idempotency, stability, edge preservation, output distributions and variation decomposition. A comparison is made of their respective abilities for signal recovery by means of simulations. The success of the smoothers in recovering the signal is measured by the integrated mean square error and the regression coefficient calculated from the least squares regression of the smoothed sequence on the signal. Finally, LULU smoothers are practically applied.Show more