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# Doctoral Degrees (Statistics and Actuarial Science)

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### Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Statistics and Actuarial Science) by Subject "Confidence intervals"

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- ItemEdgeworth-corrected small-sample confidence intervals for ratio parameters in linear regression(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-03) Binyavanga, Kamanzi-wa; Maritz, J. S.; Steel, S. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Statistical and Actuarial Science.
Show more ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this thesis we construct a central confidence interval for a smooth scalar non-linear function of parameter vector f3 in a single general linear regression model Y = X f3 + c. We do this by first developing an Edgeworth expansion for the distribution function of a standardised point estimator. The confidence interval is then constructed in the manner discussed. Simulation studies reported at the end of the thesis show the interval to perform well in many small-sample situations. Central to the development of the Edgeworth expansion is our use of the index notation which, in statistics, has been popularised by McCullagh (1984, 1987). The contributions made in this thesis are of two kinds. We revisit the complex McCullagh Index Notation, modify and extend it in certain respects as well as repackage it in the manner that is more accessible to other researchers. On the new contributions, in addition to the introduction of a new small-sample confidence interval, we extend the theory of stochastic polynomials (SP) in three respects. A method, which we believe to be the simplest and most transparent to date, is proposed for deriving cumulants for these. Secondly, the theory of the cumulants of the SP is developed both in the context of Edgeworth expansion as well as in the regression setting. Thirdly, our new method enables us to propose a natural alternative to the method of Hall (1992a, 1992b) regarding skewness-reduction in Edgeworth expansions.Show more - ItemStatistical inference for inequality measures based on semi-parametric estimators(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12) Kpanzou, Tchilabalo Abozou; De Wet, Tertius; Neethling, Ariane; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Statistics and Actuarial Science.
Show more ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Measures of inequality, also used as measures of concentration or diversity, are very popular in economics and especially in measuring the inequality in income or wealth within a population and between populations. However, they have applications in many other fields, e.g. in ecology, linguistics, sociology, demography, epidemiology and information science. A large number of measures have been proposed to measure inequality. Examples include the Gini index, the generalized entropy, the Atkinson and the quintile share ratio measures. Inequality measures are inherently dependent on the tails of the population (underlying distribution) and therefore their estimators are typically sensitive to data from these tails (nonrobust). For example, income distributions often exhibit a long tail to the right, leading to the frequent occurrence of large values in samples. Since the usual estimators are based on the empirical distribution function, they are usually nonrobust to such large values. Furthermore, heavy-tailed distributions often occur in real life data sets, remedial action therefore needs to be taken in such cases. The remedial action can be either a trimming of the extreme data or a modification of the (traditional) estimator to make it more robust to extreme observations. In this thesis we follow the second option, modifying the traditional empirical distribution function as estimator to make it more robust. Using results from extreme value theory, we develop more reliable distribution estimators in a semi-parametric setting. These new estimators of the distribution then form the basis for more robust estimators of the measures of inequality. These estimators are developed for the four most popular classes of measures, viz. Gini, generalized entropy, Atkinson and quintile share ratio. Properties of such estimators are studied especially via simulation. Using limiting distribution theory and the bootstrap methodology, approximate confidence intervals were derived. Through the various simulation studies, the proposed estimators are compared to the standard ones in terms of mean squared error, relative impact of contamination, confidence interval length and coverage probability. In these studies the semi-parametric methods show a clear improvement over the standard ones. The theoretical properties of the quintile share ratio have not been studied much. Consequently, we also derive its influence function as well as the limiting normal distribution of its nonparametric estimator. These results have not previously been published. In order to illustrate the methods developed, we apply them to a number of real life data sets. Using such data sets, we show how the methods can be used in practice for inference. In order to choose between the candidate parametric distributions, use is made of a measure of sample representativeness from the literature. These illustrations show that the proposed methods can be used to reach satisfactory conclusions in real life problems.Show more