Browsing by Author "Wiese, Owen"
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- ItemCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the reninangiotensin system : a closer look at angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)(Sage, 2020-05-01) Zemlin, Annalise E.; Wiese, OwenENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the first cases of atypical pneumonia linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China were described in late December 2019, the global landscape has changed radically. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, and at the time of writing this review just over 3 million individuals have been infected with more than 200 000 deaths globally. Numerous countries are in “lockdown”, social distancing is the new norm, even the most advanced healthcare systems are under pressure, and a global economic recession seems inevitable. A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the aetiological agent. From experience with previous coronavirus epidemics, namely the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2004 and 2012 respectively, it was postulated that the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor is a possible port of cell entry. ACE2 is part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and is also associated with lung and cardiovascular disorders and inflammation. Recent studies have confirmed that ACE2 is the port of entry for SARS-CoV-2. Male sex, advanced age, and a number of associated comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for infection with COVID-19. Many high-risk COVID-19 patients with comorbidities are on ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, and this has sparked debate about whether to continue these treatment regimes. Attention has also shifted to ACE2 being a target for future therapies or vaccines against COVID-19. In this review, we discuss COVID-19 and its complex relationship with ACE2.
- ItemMolecules in pathogenesis: angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)(BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & Association of Clinical Pathologists, 2021-04) Wiese, Owen; Zemlin, Annalise E.; Pillay, Tahir S.The renin–angiotensin system is mainly associated with the regulation of blood pressure, but recently many other functions of this system have been described. ACE2, an 805-amino acid monocarboxypeptidase type I transmembrane glycoprotein, was discovered in 2000 and has sequence similarity to two other proteins, namely ACE and collectrin. The ACE2 gene is located on Xp22 and is highly polymorphic. ACE2 is expressed in numerous tissues especially the lung alveolar epithelial cells, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. Animal studies have found that ACE2 is central in diseases affecting almost all organ systems, among other cardiac, respiratory, renal and endocrine functions. ACE2 was identified as the cellular contact point for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the global pandemic (COVID-19), and is a potential drug target. SARS-CoV-2 infection has several effects on the renin–angiotensin system and conversely, regulation of this receptor may affect the progress of infection. We describe the genetics and functions of ACE2, explore its various physiological functions in the renin–angiotensin system and discuss its role in the pathophysiology of disease. ACE2 opposes the vasopressor ACE pathway of the renin–angiotensin system by converting angiotensin (Ang) I to Ang (1–9) and Ang II to Ang (1–7) which initiates the vasodilatory pathway. ACE2 may have a protective effect in the lung and kidney as knockout mice display susceptibility to acute respiratory distress and hypertensive nephropathy. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent fusion and downregulation of this pathway during SARS-CoV-2 infection may explain some of the unusual sequelae seen in COVID-19. This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.