Browsing by Author "Wallis, Lee"
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- ItemAdmission factors associated with the in-hospital mortality of burns patients in resource-constrained settings : a two-year retrospective investigation in a South African adult burns centre(Elsevier, 2019) Boissin, Constance; Wallis, Lee; Kleintjes, Wayne; Laflamme, LucieObjective: Little is known concerning the factors associated with in-hospital mortality of trauma patients in resource-constrained settings, not least in burns centres. We investigated this question in the adult burns centre at Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town. We further assessed whether the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) is an accurate predictive score of mortality in this setting. Methods: Medical records of all patients admitted with fresh burns over a two-year period (2015 and 2016) were scrutinized to obtain data on patient, injury and admission-related characteristics. Association with in-hospital mortality was investigated for flame burns using logistic regressions and expressed as odds ratios (ORs). The mortality prediction of the ABSI score was assessed using sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results: Overall the in-hospital mortality was 20.4%. For the 263 flame burns, while crude ORs suggested gender, burn depth, burn size, inhalation injury, and referral status were all individually significantly associated with mortality, only the association with female gender, not being referred and burn size remained significant after adjustments (adjusted ORs = 3.79, 2.86 and 1.11 (per percentage increase in size) respectively). For the ABSI score, sensitivity and specificity were 84% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: In this specialised centre, mortality occurs in one in five patients. It is associated with a few clinical parameters, and can be predicted using the ABSI score.
- ItemAssessment of routine laboratory screening of adult psychiatric patients presenting to an emergency centre in Cape Town(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2011-12) Crede, Andreas; Geduld, Heike; Wallis, LeeManaging mental health patients forms part of the workload in emergency centres (ECs) throughout the Western Cape (WC), which has an estimated overall lifetime prevalence of mental health disorders of 39.4%. The Mental Health Care Act of 2002 requires that patients presenting with a mental health disorder and requiring involuntary or assisted admission be admitted to a designated hospital for 72 hours for assessment and treatment. Their entry point in most cases is via the EC, which places additional strain on emergency facilities. The high incidence of mental health disorders in adolescence, when many adult mental health conditions begin, is expected to increase because of increasing social stressors such as poverty, displacement and conflict in low-income areas.3 We can therefore expect an increasing human and financial resources burden on health care facilities.
- ItemComplications of tube thoracostomy for chest trauma(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009) Maritz, David; Wallis, Lee; Hardcastle, TimothyObjective. To determine the insertional and positional complications encountered by the placement of intercostal chest drains (ICDs) for trauma and whether further training is warranted in operators inserting intercostal chest drains outside level 1 trauma unit settings. Methods. Over a period of 3 months, all patients with or without an ICD in situ in the front room trauma bay of Tygerberg Hospital were included in the study. Patients admitted directly via the trauma resuscitation unit were excluded. No long-term infective complications were included. A self-reporting system recorded complications, and additional data were obtained by searching the department's records and monthly statistics. Results. A total of 3 989 patients with trauma injuries were seen in the front room trauma bay during the study period; 273 (6.8%) patients with an ICD in situ or requiring an ICD were assessed in the trauma unit and admitted to the chest drain ward; 24 patients were identified with 26 complications relating to the insertion and positioning of the ICD; 22 (92%) of these had been referred with an ICD in situ. An overall complication rate of 9.5% was seen. Insertional complications numbered 7 (27%), with 19 (73%) positional complications. The most common errors were insertion at the incorrect anatomical site, and extrathoracic and too shallow placement (side portal of the drain lying outside the chest cavity). Conclusion. Operators at the referral hospitals have received insufficient training in the technique for insertion of ICDs for chest trauma and would benefit from more structured instruction and closer supervision of ICD insertion.
- ItemEmergency centres lack defibrillator knowledge(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-07) Louw, Pauline; Maritz, David; Wallis, LeeIn the emergency centre (EC), a number of essential items of equipment are needed to manage a wide variety of acute life-threatening emergencies. Their correct use depends heavily on the training and experience of personnel. The defibrillator is part of this essential equipment and should be available in all ECs. Although defibrillators are widely available in Western Cape ECs, it is not known whether public sector EC personnel have the knowledge and skills necessary to use them safely and effectively. Most cardiac arrests in adult patients are due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) or cardiac-related causes, and early defibrillation improves survival of such patients1,2 and is therefore an important part of their immediate treatment (combined with the other links of the chain of survival for both in- and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest).
- ItemHarnessing inter-disciplinary collaboration to improve emergency care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) : results of research prioritisation setting exercise(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-08-31) Lecky, Fiona E.; Reynolds, Teri; Otesile, Olubukola; Hollis, Sara; Turner, Janette; Fuller, Gordon; Sammy, Ian; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Geduld, Heike; Tenner, Andrea G.; French, Simone; Govia, Ishtar; Balen, Julie; Goodacre, Steve; Marahatta, Sujan B.; DeVries, Shaheem; Sawe, Hendry R.; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Mfinanga, Juma; Rubiano, Andres M.; Chebbi, Henda; Do Shin, Sang; Ferrer, Jose Maria E.; Haddadi, Mashyaneh; Firew, Tsion; Taubert, Kathryn; Lee, Andrew; Convocar, Pauline; Jamaluddin, Sabariah; Kotecha, Shahzmah; Yaqeen, Emad Abu; Wells, Katie; Wallis, LeeBackground: More than half of deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) result from conditions that could be treated with emergency care - an integral component of universal health coverage (UHC) - through timely access to lifesaving interventions. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to extend UHC to a further 1 billion people by 2023, yet evidence supporting improved emergency care coverage is lacking. In this article, we explore four phases of a research prioritisation setting (RPS) exercise conducted by researchers and stakeholders from South Africa, Egypt, Nepal, Jamaica, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Colombia, Ethiopia, Iran, Jordan, Malaysia, South Korea and Phillipines, USA and UK as a key step in gathering evidence required by policy makers and practitioners for the strengthening of emergency care systems in limited-resource settings. Results: The RPS proposed seven priority research questions addressing: identification of context-relevant emergency care indicators, barriers to effective emergency care; accuracy and impact of triage tools; potential quality improvement via registries; characteristics of people seeking emergency care; best practices for staff training and retention; and cost effectiveness of critical care – all within LMICs. Conclusions: Convened by WHO and facilitated by the University of Sheffield, the Global Emergency Care Research Network project (GEM-CARN) brought together a coalition of 16 countries to identify research priorities for strengthening emergency care in LMICs. Our article further assesses the quality of the RPS exercise and reviews the current evidence supporting the identified priorities.
- ItemIntegrating mHealth at point of care in low- and middle-income settings : the system perspective(Taylor & Francis Open, 2017) Wallis, Lee; Blessing, Paul; Dalwai, Mohammed; Shin, Sang DoWhile the field represents a wide spectrum of products and services, many aspects of mHealth have great promise within resource-poor settings: there is an extensive range of cheap, widely available tools which can be used at the point of care delivery. However, there are a number of conditions which need to be met if such solutions are to be adequately integrated into existing health systems; we consider these from regulatory, technological and user perspectives. We explore the need for an appropriate legislative and regulatory framework, to avoid ‘work around’ solutions, which threaten patient confidentiality (such as the extensive use of instant messaging services to deliver sensitive clinical information and seek diagnostic and management advice). In addition, we will look at other confidentiality issues such as the need for applications to remove identifiable information (such as photos) from users’ devices. Integration is dependent upon multiple technological factors, and we illustrate these using examples such as products made available specifically for adoption in low- and middle-income countries. Issues such as usability of the application, signal loss, data volume utilization, need to enter passwords, and the availability of automated or in-app context-relevant clinical advice will be discussed. From a user perspective, there are three groups to consider: experts, front-line clinicians, and patients. Each will accept, to different degrees, the use of technology in care – often with cultural or regional variation – and this is central to integration and uptake. For clinicians, ease of integration into daily work flow is critical, as are familiarity and acceptability of other technology in the workplace. Front-line staff tend to work in areas with more challenges around cell phone signal coverage and data availability than ‘back-end’ experts, and the effect of this is discussed.
- ItemPercutaneous coronary intervention still not accessible for many South Africans(Elsevier, 2017-09) Stassen, Willem; Wallis, Lee; Lambert, Craig; Castren, Maaret; Kurland, LisaIntroduction: The incidence of myocardial infarction is rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to reduce mortality, timely reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis followed by PCI is required. South Africa has historically been characterised by inequities in healthcare access based on geographic and socioeconomic status. We aimed to determine the coverage of PCI-facilities in South Africa and relate this to access based on population and socio-economic status. Methods: This cross-sectional study obtained data from literature, directories, organisational databases and correspondence with Departments of Health and hospital groups. Data was analysed descriptively while Spearman’s Rho sought correlations between PCI-facility resources, population, poverty and medical insurance status. Results: South Africa has 62 PCI-facilities. Gauteng has the most PCI-facilities (n = 28) while the Northern Cape has none. Most PCI-facilities (n = 48; 77%) are owned by the private sector. A disparity exists between the number of private and state-owned PCI-facilities when compared to the poverty (r = 0.01; p = 0.17) and insurance status of individuals (r = 0.4; p = 0.27). Conclusion: For many South Africans, access to PCI-facilities and primary PCI is still impossible given their socio-economic status or geographical locale. Research is needed to determine the specific PCI-facility needs based on geographic and epidemiological aspects, and to develop a contextualised solution for South Africans suffering a myocardial infarction.
- ItemPoor return on investment : investigating the barriers that cause low credentialing yields in a resource-limited clinical ultrasound training programme(SpringerOpen, 2018-02-21) Lamprecht, Hein; Lemke, Gustav; Van Hoving, Daniel; Kruger, Thinus; Wallis, LeeBackground: Clinical ultrasound is commonly used in medical practices worldwide due to the multiple benefits the modality offers clinicians. Rigorous credentialing standards are necessary to safeguard patients against operator errors. The purpose of the study was to establish and analyse the barriers that specifically lead to poor credentialing success within a resource-limited clinical ultrasound training programme. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was e-mailed to all trainees who attended the introductory clinical ultrasound courses held in Cape Town since its inception in 2009 to 2013. All trainees were followed until they completed their training programme in 2015. Results: Only one fifth of trainees (n = 43, 19.7%), who entered the Cape Town training programme, credentialed successfully. Ninety (n = 90, 41.3%) trainees responded to the survey. Eighty-six (n = 86) surveys were included for analysis. Time constraints were the highest ranked barrier amongst all trainees. Access barriers (to trainers and ultrasound machines) were the second highest ranked amongst the non-credentialed group. A combination between access and logistical barriers (e.g. difficulty in finding patients with pathology to scan) were the second highest ranked in the credentialed group. Conclusions: Access barriers conspire to burden the Cape Town clinical ultrasound training programme. Novel solutions are necessary to overcome these access barriers to improve future credentialing success.
- ItemA roadmap for the implementation of mHealth innovations for image-based diagnostic support in clinical and public-health settings : a focus on front-line health workers and health-system organizations(Taylor & Francis Open, 2017) Wallis, Lee; Hasselberg, Marie; Barkman, Catharina; Bogoch, Isaac; Broomhead, Sean; Dumont, Guy; Groenewald, Johann; Lundin, Johan; Bergendahl, Johan Norell; Nyasulu, Peter; Olofsson, Maud; Weinehall, Lars; Laflamme, LucieBackground: Diagnostic support for clinicians is a domain of application of mHealth technologies with a slow uptake despite promising opportunities, such as image-based clinical support. The absence of a roadmap for the adoption and implementation of these types of applications is a further obstacle. Objectives: This article provides the groundwork for a roadmap to implement image-based support for clinicians, focusing on how to overcome potential barriers affecting front-line users, the health-care organization and the technical system. Methods: A consensual approach was used during a two-day roundtable meeting gathering a convenience sample of stakeholders (n = 50) from clinical, research, policymaking and business fields and from different countries. A series of sessions was held including small group discussions followed by reports to the plenary. Session moderators synthesized the reports in a number of theme-specific strategies that were presented to the participants again at the end of the meeting for them to determine their individual priority. Results: There were four to seven strategies derived from the thematic sessions. Once reviewed and prioritized by the participants some received greater priorities than others. As an example, of the seven strategies related to the front-line users, three received greater priority: the need for any system to significantly add value to the users; the usability of mHealth apps; and the goodness-of-fit into the work flow. Further, three aspects cut across the themes: ease of integration of the mHealth applications; solid ICT infrastructure and support network; and interoperability. Conclusions: Research and development in image-based diagnostic pave the way to making health care more accessible and more equitable. The successful implementation of those solutions will necessitate a seamless introduction into routines, adequate technical support and significant added value.
- ItemA smartphone-based consultation system for acute burns – methodological challenges related to follow-up of the system(Taylor & Francis Open, 2017) Hasselberg, Marie; Wallis, Lee; Blessing, Paul; Laflamme, LucieBackground: A smartphone-based consultation system for acute burns is currently being implemented in the Western Cape, South Africa. Even though studies indicate that similar systems for burns tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management, the evidence is still sparse. There is a need for more in-depth evaluations, not least in resource-constrained settings where mHealth projects are increasing. Objective: This article describes the consultation system and assessments in relation to its implementation with a special focus on methodological challenges. Methods: A number of evaluations and assessments have been conducted, are ongoing or planned for in relation to the implementation of the teleconsultation system. Initial assessments showed that size and depth of burns could be assessed at least as well using photographs as at bedside and that the image quality of handheld devices can be used as well as computers. Studies on system usability are currently being done with a mixed-methods approach. A historical cohort design will be applied to assess the potential health impact of the system. Patients with burn injuries where the doctor at point of care has used the app to receive diagnostic support from a burns expert will be considered as exposed and patients with burn injuries where the app has not been used will be considered as non-exposed. Conclusions: Smartphone-based consultation systems have the potential to strengthen the assessment of burn injury in many settings. However, ethically and methodologically sound evaluations are needed to find the best systems and solutions. This article identifies challenges and suggests potential assessments in relation to the implementation of such a system.
- ItemTowards developing a consensus assessment framework for global emergency medicine fellowships(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2019-11-11) Jahn, Haiko Kurt; Kwan, James; O’Reilly, Gerard; Geduld, Heike; Douglass, Katherine; Tenner, Andrea; Wallis, Lee; Tupesis, Janis; Mowafi, Hani O.Background: The number of Global Emergency Medicine (GEM) Fellowship training programs are increasing worldwide. Despite the increasing number of GEM fellowships, there is not an agreed upon approach for assessment of GEM trainees. Main body: In order to study the lack of standardized assessment in GEM fellowship training, a working group was established between the International EM Fellowship Consortium (IEMFC) and the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM). A needs assessment survey of IEMFC members and a review were undertaken to identify assessment tools currently in use by GEM fellowship programs; what relevant frameworks exist; and common elements used by programs with a wide diversity of emphases. A consensus framework was developed through iterative working group discussions. Thirty-two of 40 GEM fellowships responded (80% response). There is variability in the use and format of formal assessment between programs. Thirty programs reported training GEM fellows in the last 3 years (94%). Eighteen (56%) reported only informal assessments of trainees. Twenty-seven (84%) reported regular meetings for assessment of trainees. Eleven (34%) reported use of a structured assessment of any sort for GEM fellows and, of these, only 2 (18%) used validated instruments modified from general EM residency assessment tools. Only 3 (27%) programs reported incorporation of formal written feedback from partners in other countries. Using these results along with a review of the available assessment tools in GEM the working group developed a set of principles to guide GEM fellowship assessments along with a sample assessment for use by GEM fellowship programs seeking to create their own customized assessments. Conclusion: There are currently no widely used assessment frameworks for GEM fellowship training. The working group made recommendations for developing standardized assessments aligned with competencies defined by the programs, that characterize goals and objectives of training, and document progress of trainees towards achieving those goals. Frameworks used should include perspectives of multiple stakeholders including partners in other countries where trainees conduct field work. Future work may evaluate the usability, validity and reliability of assessment frameworks in GEM fellowship training. Keywords: Global emergency medicine, Global health, Assessment, Curriculum, Evaluation, Medical education, Postgraduate medical education, Fellowships