Browsing by Author "Vos, Theo"
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- ItemThe burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013(Public Library of Science, 2017) Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M.; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H.; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S.; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmou, Imad A. D.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C.; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B.; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J.; Tabb, Karen M.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25–49 age group, with a peak in the 35–39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of diseases in the region.
- ItemEpidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997 – 2015): a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Joubert, Jane D.; Stein, Dan J.; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A.; Muhwava, Lorrein S.; Bradshaw, DebbieENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. Methods and analysis: We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available.
- ItemGlobal mortality from firearms, 1990-2016(American Medical Association, 2018) Naghavi, Mohsen; Marczak, Laurie B.; Kutz, Michael; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Arora, Megha; Miller-Petrie, Molly; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alam, Khurshid; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aremu, Olatunde; Arora, Amit; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Assadi, Reza; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Bennett, James R.; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bilal, Arebu Issa; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; De Leo, Diego; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Ding, Eric L.; Do, Huyen Phuc; Doku, David Teye; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Edessa, Dumessa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fischer, Florian; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fullman, Nancy; Futran, Neal D.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gutierrez, Reyna Alma; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hawley, Caitlin; Hendrie, Delia; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; James, Spencer L.; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jonas, Jost B.; Kahsay, Amaha; Kasaeian, Amir; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Khader, Yousef; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Yun Jin; Kosen, Soewarta; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi Jane; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Miller, Ted R.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Nand, Devina; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Patton, George C.; Phillips, Michael R.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Salama, Joseph S.; Sanabria, Juan; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Shiue, Ivy; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sisay, Mekonnen; Skirbekk, Vegard; Filho, Adauto Martins Soares; Stein, Dan J.; Stokes, Mark Andrew; Sufiyan, Mu’awiyyah Babale; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadese, Fentaw; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Tung Thanh; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vlassov, Vasily; Werdecker, Andrea; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Hay, Simon I.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lopez, Alan D.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.Importance: Understanding global variation in firearm mortality rates could guide prevention policies and interventions. Objective: To estimate mortality due to firearm injury deaths from 1990 to 2016 in 195 countries and territories. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used deidentified aggregated data including 13 812 location-years of vital registration data to generate estimates of levels and rates of death by age-sex-year-location. The proportion of suicides in which a firearm was the lethal means was combined with an estimate of per capita gun ownership in a revised proxy measure used to evaluate the relationship between availability or access to firearms and firearm injury deaths. Exposures:Firearm ownership and access. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cause-specific deaths by age, sex, location, and year. Results:Worldwide, it was estimated that 251 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 195 000-276 000) people died from firearm injuries in 2016, with 6 countries (Brazil, United States, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala) accounting for 50.5% (95% UI, 42.2%-54.8%) of those deaths. In 1990, there were an estimated 209 000 (95% UI, 172 000 to 235 000) deaths from firearm injuries. Globally, the majority of firearm injury deaths in 2016 were homicides (64.0% [95% UI, 54.2%-68.0%]; absolute value, 161 000 deaths [95% UI, 107 000-182 000]); additionally, 27% were firearm suicide deaths (67 500 [95% UI, 55 400-84 100]) and 9% were unintentional firearm deaths (23 000 [95% UI, 18 200-24 800]). From 1990 to 2016, there was no significant decrease in the estimated global age-standardized firearm homicide rate (−0.2% [95% UI, −0.8% to 0.2%]). Firearm suicide rates decreased globally at an annualized rate of 1.6% (95% UI, 1.1-2.0), but in 124 of 195 countries and territories included in this study, these levels were either constant or significant increases were estimated. There was an annualized decrease of 0.9% (95% UI, 0.5%-1.3%) in the global rate of age-standardized firearm deaths from 1990 to 2016. Aggregate firearm injury deaths in 2016 were highest among persons aged 20 to 24 years (for men, an estimated 34 700 deaths [95% UI, 24 900-39 700] and for women, an estimated 3580 deaths [95% UI, 2810-4210]). Estimates of the number of firearms by country were associated with higher rates of firearm suicide (P < .001; R² = 0.21) and homicide (P < .001; R² = 0.35). Conclusions and Relevance: This study estimated between 195 000 and 276 000 firearm injury deaths globally in 2016, the majority of which were firearm homicides. Despite an overall decrease in rates of firearm injury death since 1990, there was variation among countries and across demographic subgroups.
- ItemGlobal, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016(Elsevier, 2019-05-01) Feigin, Valery L.; Nichols, Emma; Alam, Tahiya; Bannick, Marlena S.; Beghi, Ettore; Blake, Natacha; Culpepper, William J.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Elbaz, Alexis; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Fisher, James L.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Giussani, Giorgia; Glennie, Linda; James, Spencer L.; Johnson, Catherine Owens; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff; Nguyen, Minh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Patel, Anoop P.; Piccininni, Marco; Roth, Gregory A.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Theadom, Alice; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wallin, Mitchell Taylor; Wright, Claire; Zunt, Joseph Raymond; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Aboyans, Victor; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Acharya, Dilaram; Adamu, Abdu A.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Shahi salman, Rustam; Alahdab, Fares; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Arabloo, Jalal; Aremu, Olatunde; Arnlov, Johan; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Ayuk, Tambe B.; Badawi, Alaa; Banach, Maciej; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Belachew, Abate Bekele; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Beuran, Mircea; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgo, Belete; Bijani, Ali; Bililign, Nigus; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Blazes, Christopher Kynrint; Brayne, Carol; Butt, Zahid A.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Car, Mate; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J.; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Franz; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cerin, Ester; Chaiah, Yazan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chatziralli, Irini; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Costa, Vera M.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura; Daryani, Ahmad; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De La Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Leo, Diego; Degefa, Meaza Girma; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Diaz, Daniel; Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doku, David Teye; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Edvardsson, David; El-Khatib, Ziad; Endres, Matthias; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Farhadi, Farzaneh; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Fatima, Batool; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ganji, Morsaleh; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A,; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Gelaw, Belayneh K,; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Geremew, Demeke; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Gidey, Mahari Y.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K.; Gnedovskaya, Elena V.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Grosso, Giuseppe; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rajeev; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hagos, Tekleberhan B.; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hegazy, Mohamed I.; Heidari, Behnam; Henok, Andualem; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hoang, Chi Linh; Hole, Michael K.; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Hu, Guoqing; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jobanputra, Yash B.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jurisson, Mikk; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Rizwan; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamil, Teshome Abegaz; Kanchan, Tanuj; Karami, Manoochehr; Karch, Andre; Karimi, Narges; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes; Kaul, Anil; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khazaie, Habibolah; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Anthony S.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kisa, Adnan; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Koyanagi, Ai; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kumar, Manasi; Lacey, Ben; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Lansingh, Van C.; Latifi, Arman; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Li, Shanshan; Liao, Yu; Linn, Shai; Lo, Warren David; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Mackay, Mark T.; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manafi, Navid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; Marz, Winfried; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Mate, Kedar K. V.; McAlinden, Colm; McGrath, John J.; Mehta, Varshil; Meier, Toni; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Melese, Addisu; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mengistu, Getnet; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mohajer, Bahram; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadi, Moslem; Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohebi, Farnam; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muhammed, Oumer Sada; Muruet, Walter; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagel, Gabriele; Naheed, Aliya; Naik, Gurudatta; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles Richard James; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R.; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Malihe; Nyasulu, Peter S.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Oren, Eyal; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; P A, Mahesh; Pakpour, Amir H.; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pereira, David M.; Petzold, Max; Pillay, Julian David; Piradov, Michael A.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Postma, Maarten J.; Poulton, Richie; Poustchi, Hossein; Prakash, Swayam; Prakash, V.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rajati, Fatemeh; Ram, Usha; Ranta, Anna; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Reinig, Nickolas; Reis, Cesar; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaeian, Shahab; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Rios Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roro, Elias Merdassa; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostami, Ali; Sabbagh, Parisa; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saddik, Basema; Safari, Hosein; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salamati, Payman; Salehi Zahabi, Saleh; Salimi, Yahya; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Santos, Itamar S.; Santric Milicevic, Milena M.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Sathian, Brijesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawant, Arundhati R.; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya, 1966-; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shakir, Raad A.; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; She, Jun; Sheikh, Aziz; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shiue, Ivy; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq J.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Joao Pedro; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr Hasan; Sobhani, Soheila; Soofi, Moslem; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylaja, Pn; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Te Ao, Braden James; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Temsah, Omar; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Thrift, Amanda G.; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada-Girbés, Miguel; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Khanh Bao; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Ullah, Irfan; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Valdez, Pascual R.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vasanthan, Rajagopalan; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Vosoughi, Kia; Vu, Giang Thu; Vujcic, Isidora S.; Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiss, Jordan; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Xu, Gelin; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yamada, Tomohide; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yimer, Ebrahim M.; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zare, Zohreh; Zhang, Yunquan; Zodpey, Sanjay; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo; Gupta, RahulBackground: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders. Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach. Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable). Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.
- ItemMortality, morbidity, and hospitalisations due to influenza lower respiratory tract infections, 2017 : an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017(Elsevier, 2019) Troeger, Christopher E.; Blacker, Brigette F.; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Zimsen, Stephanie R. M.; Albertson, Samuel B.; Abate, Degu; Abdela, Jemal; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Aghayan, Sargis Aghasi; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alahdab, Fares; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Anjomshoa, Mina; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aremu, Olatunde; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Atique, Suleman; Attia, Engi F.; Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A.; Awasthi, Ashish; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Badali, Hamid; Badawi, Alaa; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barac, Aleksandra; Bassat, Quique; Bedi, Neeraj; Belachew, Abate Bekele; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dang, Anh Kim; Daryani, Ahmad; Degefa, Meaza Girma; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Dhimal, Meghnath; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doku, David Teye; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Edessa, Dumessa; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Fakhim, Hamed; Fernandes, Eduarda; Fischer, Florian; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J.; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Geremew, Demeke; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Guo, Jingwen; Ha, Giang Hai; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamidi, Samer; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hoang, Chi Linh; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jonas, Jost B.; Kahsay, Amaha; Karch, Andre; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kisa, Adnan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kochhar, Sonali; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Levi, Miriam; Li, Shanshan; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Majdan, Marek; Mehta, Varshil; Melese, Addisu; Memish, Ziad A.; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Milne, George J.; Milosevic, Branko; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Morawska, Lidia; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muhammed, Oumer Sada S.; Murthy, Srinivas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Nguyen, Nam Ba; Nguyen, Son Hoang; Nguyen, Trang Huyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nixon, Molly R.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Justin R.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pakhale, Smita; Patel, Shanti; Paudel, Deepak; Pigott, David M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Ronfani, Luca; Rubino, Salvatore; Safari, Saeed; Safiri, Saeid; Saleem, Zikria; Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Samy, Abdallah M.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharif, Mehdi; Sheikh, Aziz; Shigematsu, Mika; Smith, David L.; Somayaji, Ranjani; Soriano, Joan B.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Tessema, Belay; Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Khanh Bao; Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Ullah, Irfan; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vu, Giang Thu; Wada, Fiseha Wadilo; Waheed, Yasir; West, T. Eoin; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Yimer, Ebrahim M.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaidi, Zoubida; Vos, Theo; Lim, Stephen S.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Hay, Simon I.; Reiner, Robert C.Background: Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities. In this Article, we focus on LRTIs that can be attributed to influenza. Methods We modelled the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality attributable to influenza for every country and selected subnational locations by age and year from 1990 to 2017 as part of GBD 2017. We used a counterfactual approach that first estimated the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality and then attributed a fraction of those outcomes to influenza. Findings Influenza LRTI was responsible for an estimated 145 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 99 000–200 000) deaths among all ages in 2017. The influenza LRTI mortality rate was highest among adults older than 70 years (16·4 deaths per 100 000 [95% UI 11·6–21·9]), and the highest rate among all ages was in eastern Europe (5·2 per 100 000 population [95% UI 3·5–7·2]). We estimated that influenza LRTIs accounted for 9 459 000 (95% UI 3 709 000–22 935 000) hospitalisations due to LRTIs and 81 536 000 hospital days (24 330 000–259 851 000). We estimated that 11·5% (95% UI 10·0–12·9) of LRTI episodes were attributable to influenza, corresponding to 54 481 000 (38 465 000–73 864 000) episodes and 8 172 000 severe episodes (5 000 000–13 296 000). Interpretation This comprehensive assessment of the burden of influenza LRTIs shows the substantial annual effect of influenza on global health. Although preparedness planning will be important for potential pandemics, health loss due to seasonal influenza LRTIs should not be overlooked, and vaccine use should be considered. Efforts to improve influenza prevention measures are needed.