Browsing by Author "Volschenk, C. G."
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- ItemBerry size variation of vitis vinifera l. Cv. Syrah : morphological dimensions, berry composition and wine quality(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2015) Melo, M. S.; Schultz, H. R.; Volschenk, C. G.; Hunter, J. J.Berry size has always been a quality factor in wine production. In this study, Syrah grapes from a single vineyard were classified into different size groups according to diameter: small (< 13 mm), medium (13 < diameter < 14 mm) and large (> 14 mm). Smaller berries were present in the highest and larger berries in the lowest numbers. Size distributions were similar in both seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012). Berry physical characteristics (mass, volume and skin area) increased with size, showing the same tendency in both years. Positive correlations between berry mass, volume and skin area were found, whereas these variables were negatively related with berry number/kg grapes. Berry volume was negatively correlated with dry skin weight. Skin surface area/berry volume seems to be an indicator of the “dilution” effect associated with increasing size, as larger berries presented the lowest values. In 2012 the grapes were harvested at a higher soluble solid level than in the previous year; large-sized berries presented the lowest levels in both years. The whole-berry analysis of total anthocyanins showed a decrease in concentration and increase in content per berry, from smaller to larger berries. Small berries and the control (naturally occurring berry size mixture) showed a higher extractability of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds than the medium and large berries. Sensorially, wines from medium berries were more consistent over the two years, scoring higher than the rest. Berry sizes were related to wine style differences, and knowing the population of berry sizes in the vineyard close to harvest would offer a possibility to predict wine styles.
- ItemIntegrative effects of vine water relations and grape ripeness level of vitis vinifera l. cv. Shiraz/Richter 99. I. physiological changes and vegetative-reproductive growth balances(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2014-07) Hunter, J. J.; Volschenk, C. G.; Novello, V.; Strever, A. E.; Fouche, G. W.The water relations and physiological status of the grapevine are critical for obtaining a quality product and for fully exploring vineyard and grape potential. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of grapevine water status (induced by means of two field water capacity-based irrigation levels, 75% and 100%, applied at single and combined vine developmental stages) on morphological and physiological changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz/Richter 99 grapevines and grapes (harvested at different soluble solid levels) under field conditions. The integrative effects of vine water relations and grape ripeness level, specifically in a Mediterranean high winter rainfall area, have not yet been investigated systematically. The terroir affected the reaction of the vines to treatments. The soil displayed high water-holding capacity and a buffer against favourable evapotranspiration conditions, even with a western aspect and being subjected to long and relatively dry seasons, with frequent occurrence of high temperatures and grapevines with fully developed canopies. The vines did not seem overly stressed – in line with the relatively high base soil water fractions of mostly more than 50% of field water capacity. Primary and secondary leaf water potential and stem water potential displayed similar patterns and the water potential of the primary and secondary leaves was similar. Despite relatively high base soil water contents that prevented excessively low plant water potential and classic leaf and berry behaviour to surface, the vines still responded in a noticeable way to volume and timing of irrigation in relation to the grape ripeness level status. Water relations, ripeness level and terroir conditions showed an integrated, steering impact on physiological, vegetative and reproductive behaviour. Post-véraison irrigated vines were expected to maintain relatively high water potential during the last weeks of the ripening period, but this seemed not to be the case. All vines seemed to have recuperated/stabilised during this time, maintaining their water balances. Physical, physiological and compositional changes in the berry during late ripening under field conditions were clarified further. New information was obtained on the relationships between the behaviour of the root system, canopy and grapes and the changing terroir conditions during the ripening period.
- ItemIntegrative effects of vine water relations and grape ripeness level of vitis vinifera l. cv. Shiraz/Richter 99. II. grape composition and wine quality(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2014-07) Hunter, J. J.; Volschenk, C. G.; Novello, V.; Pisciotta, A.; Booyse, M.; Fouche, G. W.Regulation of grapevine water status is a common practice to manipulate grape composition and wine quality. In this investigation the effect of plant water status (two field water capacity-based irrigation levels, 75% and 100%, applied at single and combined vine developmental stages) and ripeness level (harvesting at different soluble solid levels) on grape composition and wine quality of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz/ Richter 99 was determined. Integrative effects of vine water relations and grape ripeness level, specifically in a Mediterranean high winter rainfall area, have not yet been investigated systematically. Source:sink mechanisms and dynamics and compositional and physical changes during both green berry and ripening periods (and in response to environment changes), seemed critical for the final grape composition and wine quality/style. Despite relatively favourable conditions of the experiment terroir, additional water was still required to obtain best grape and wine quality. Skin colour and total phenolic contents were stimulated in particular by 75% (field water capacity) pea size (PS) irrigation, post-véraison (PV) irrigation and 75% pea size+post-véraison irrigation, until the last harvest stage. Treatments that included post-véraison irrigation were not negative in terms of ripening parameters. Increasing total soluble solids with ripening were not followed in parallel by anthocyanin potential. Anthocyanin extractability increased with ripening. A late, overripe harvest may result in wines that are slightly better coloured, but highly alcoholic and tannic. Furthermore, at high ripeness level, differences between treatments largely diminished. Over-ripeness of grapes may have tempering and even negative effects on expected outcomes of seasonal cultivation efforts to produce unique wines. This would not favour economic viability. Although non-irrigated wines failed to result in exceptional wine quality at any harvest stage, a better result in overall quality was obtained in comparison to irrigation treatments applied at all stages. Berry and wine composition results corresponded with findings on wine sensorial quality. The 75% PS, PV irrigation, and 75% PS+PV irrigation consistently resulted in good quality wines. At the first harvest stage, 75% PV, 100% PV, 75% PS+V and 75% PS+PV irrigations gave most prominent wines; at the second harvest stage, vines irrigated 75% at PS, 75% at PS+PV and 75% at PV delivered most prominent wines; and at the third harvest stage, 75% PV, 100% PV, 75% PS and 75% PS+PV resulted in most prominent wines. These treatments represented different wine styles at each harvest stage. Restricted PS irrigation and PV irrigation, as single or combined treatments, featured prominently in favouring grape and wine composition and wine sensorial quality. Physical and compositional changes in ripening berries and the impact on wine quality and style were further clarified. New perspectives on managing time of harvesting with varying vine water status are given.