Browsing by Author "Visser, Janicke"
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Results Per Page
- ItemDeterminants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy young adults living in the Western Cape, South Africa(South African Academy of Family Physicians, 2019-10-28) Visser, Janicke; Knight, K.; Philips, L.; Visser, W.; Wallace, M.; Nel, D. G.; Blaauw, ReneeBackground: Vitamin D deficiency is fast emerging as a global pandemic. In South Africa few studies have been conducted to determine the vitamin D status of the healthy population. Methods: This prospective study with an analytical component investigated vitamin D status of healthy undergraduate students at two time points (winter and summer) at Stellenbosch University. Serum 25(OH)D was determined, anthropometric measurements taken and dietary vitamin D intake estimated (food-frequency questionnaire). Skin tone was determined (Fitzpatrick skin type classification), and a skin reflectometry device used to measure dermal melanin content. Results: Results of 242 students indicated a mean serum 25(OH)D of 63.80 ± 41.35 ng/ml and a high prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (88%). Significantly more females experienced suboptimal vitamin D levels than males (18 vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Participants with lighter skin tones had higher levels of 25(OH)D than those with darker skin tones (chi-square = 24.02; p = 0.02). The majority (60.74%) had a normal BMI, although there was no significant relationship between BMI and serum 25 (OH)D (Spearman’s r=–0.11; p = 0.09). Total mean dietary vitamin D intake was 7.99 ± 13.81 mcg, with 87.2% having inadequate intake (< 15 mcg). The relationship between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was found to be significant in winter (p < 0.001) and summer (p = 0.01). Serum vitamin D levels were significantly higher in the winter phase (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found amongst healthy young adults, despite low dietary vitamin D intakes. Significant relationships were found between serum 25(OH)D and gender, skin tone and vitamin D intake. Further studies need to be conducted, especially in high-risk groups, before results are applied to the greater South African public.
- ItemEvaluation of nutrition care to adult patients on HAART attending primary healthcare facilities in Mpumalanga(MedPharm Publications, 2019-03-06) Schiever, J. F.; Visser, Janicke; Van der Merwe, M.; Nel, D. G.Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate nutrition care and nursing professional knowledge received by adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy attending primary health care (PHC) facilities Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Subjects and setting: The study was conducted on 263 adults and 75 nursing professionals, recruited from 19 facilities in the Mbombela sub-district, Mpumalanga. Outcome measures: Interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed for each patient. Nursing professionals completed a self-administered questionnaire. Assessment tools were completed for each facility. Results: Some 41% of patients were either overweight or obese, and most females (n = 87; 51.8%) had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Based on waist circumference, 52.7% (n = 88) of females and 8.4% (n = 8) of males showed increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although nurses were aware of a nutrition supplementation programme, knowledge of national nutrition guidelines was inadequate. Clinical judgement, rather than eligibility criteria, was used to identify suitable patients, with 13.3% (n = 35) receiving supplementation whereas only 4.9% (n = 13) qualified. Facilities generally had sufficient equipment and fair storage conditions, but stock shortages of nutrition supplements were problematic. Conclusions: Whilst certain positive findings emerged, nutrition care could be improved, largely through adequate training and support to professional nurses. Training should focus on correct execution of assessment measurements and appropriate nutritional counselling, emphasising balanced eating, food security and prevention of over-nutrition. Nurses should be familiarised with national nutrition guidelines and have access to a constant nutrition supplementation supply. Improved monitoring and evaluation of nutrition care to adults on treatment at PHC facilities is needed.
- ItemImmunonutrition : a South African perspective(Medpharm Publications, 2012) Prins, Arina; Visser, JanickeClinical nutrition has evolved from providing nutrients to meet the patient’s needs to nutrition therapy that additionally aims to provide specific nutrients, or combinations thereof, which can reduce infection and improve outcomes in critically ill patients. The value of immunonutrition in the management of critically ill, preoperative and postoperative patients is now acknowledged by many healthcare practitioners. Amid the demonstration of clinical and economic benefit in defined conditions, South African practitioners should aim to translate current knowledge to best practice in order to optimise nutrition therapy and ultimately clinical outcome in critically ill patients. For the future, a paradigm shift to pharmaconutrition has been suggested. This practice dissociates the administration of key single nutrients, in the form of requirementbased parenteral or enteral nutrition, from the delivery of pharmaconutrients in the full effective pharmacological dose, as evaluated in large, well-designed trials, in order to achieve therapeutic effects. This has been evaluated in large, well designed trials. The purpose of this review is not to provide an exhaustive overview of the available literature on immunonutrition, but rather to highlight key and recent significant studies, with a focus on energy and protein, glutamine, arginine, omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients, and relate them to the South African context. Finally, the bigger picture should always be borne in mind, within the settings of the complexity of the acute phase response and the heterogeneity of the critical care population. As the evidence base evolves, the definition of optimal nutrition therapy should include all relevant components in the right mix, at the right time, to the right patients, to ensure optimal clinical benefit and outcome.
- ItemMicronutrient supplementation for critically ill adults : a systematic review of the evidence(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-12) Visser, Janicke; Labadarios, D.; Blaauw, Renee; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. Human Nutrition.Background Critical illness is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, and low levels of most micronutrients with resultant diminished endogenous antioxidant defences. Micronutrient supplementation is thought to be beneficial to the critically ill patient by ameliorating oxidative stress and by improving clinical outcome. Objectives This systematic review assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on adults recovering from critical illness. Primary outcomes included clinical endpoints [mortality, infectious complications, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay (LICU and LOS)]. Secondary outcomes included descriptions of practice issues, micronutrient status, morbidity, course of the acute phase response and oxidative stress. Search strategy An electronic bibliographic database search was carried out, bibliographies of retrieved articles were reviewed and personal files searched to obtain additional citations. Databases were searched from inception until 29 February 2008. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplementation (by any route) in adult critically ill patients, given in addition to their routine care, were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. For the primary outcomes the random-effects model was used to estimate overall relative risk / mean difference and effect size due to the presence of study heterogeneity. Selected exploratory analyses were undertaken. Differences at the level of p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The secondary outcomes were sparse and variably recorded such that this data was not formally aggregated. Main results Fifteen RCTs involving 1714 participants and 18 RCTs involving 1849 participants were included for the primary and secondary objectives respectively. The quality of the RCTs, as reported, was disappointing, particularly for allocation concealment. Fourteen trials (n=1468) of micronutrient supplementation showed a statistically significant reduction in overall mortality [relative risk (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.90, I2=0%, p=0.0009]. An asymmetrical funnel plot necessitates caution when directly interpreting these results. Six RCTs (n=1194) indicated a statistically significant reduction in 28 day mortality (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.88, I2=0%, p=0.0006) (symmetrical funnel plot). Micronutrient supplementation in this systematic review was not associated with a reduction in infectious complications, LICU or LOS. In sub-group analyses, single nutrients were associated with borderline statistical significance (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66-1.01, I2=0%, p=0.06) in terms of mortality, whist a sensitivity analysis of combined micronutrients indicated a significant reduction in mortality (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.90, I2=2%, p= 0.006). This review did not find clear evidence that parenteral is superior to enteral administration in terms of clinical outcomes. The secondary outcomes confirmed that timing, duration and dosing are key factors to ensure optimal clinical benefit. Conclusion This review does suggest potential benefit of micronutrient supplementation in critically ill adults for some clinical outcomes (especially mortality), but also highlights that caution is warranted as nutrient interactions and risk of toxicity are not clearly defined in critical illness. More large multi-centre randomized trials are necessary to assess the effects of different types and doses of micronutrient supplementation in selected groups of patients with different types of critical illness.
- ItemStaff and student health and wellness at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University : current status and needs assessment(MedPharm Publications, 2017) Koen, Nelene; Philips, Lauren; Potgieter, Sunita; Smit, Yolande; Van Niekerk, Evette; Nel, Daan G.; Visser, JanickeBackground: Emphasis is currently placed on the importance of employee and student wellness initiatives. The aim was to assess staff and student health status at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), Stellenbosch University (SU), and to conduct a wellness needs assessment. Methods: Online, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data concerning staff and students. Additionally, students’ anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed. Summary statistics, correlation coefficients and appropriate analysis of variance were used for data analyses. Results: Data were obtained from staff (survey: n = 300) and students (screening: n = 536; survey: n = 330). Some 58% (n = 174) of staff had a self-reported BMI of ≥ 25 kg/m2 whilst mean screening values for all variables fell within normal reference ranges for students. In all, 78% (n = 232) of staff reported to exercise < 150 min/week and 28% (n = 91) of students were sedentary for > 8 h/day; 63% (n = 188) of staff expressed the need to make better food choices, 17% (n = 55) of students were aware of the need to change but experienced reluctance, and both staff and students felt dietary assistance would be beneficial (43% vs. 46%). In addition, 79% of staff (n = 208) and 42% of students (n = 138) reported being under constant pressure. Conclusion: Much can be done to improve the health and well-being of both staff and students at the FMHS, SU. Wellness is a multifactorial concept; as such, health-promotional strategies for classrooms and workplaces should consider all factors in order to provide a holistic approach and potentially identify those who are at risk of a sub-optimal wellness status. (Full text of the research articles are available online at www.medpharm.tandfonline.com/ojfp) S Afr Fam Pract 2018; DOI: 10.1080/20786190.2017.1396788
- ItemThe association between tuberculosis and the development of insulin resistance in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in the Western sub-district of the Cape Metropole region, South Africa : a combined cross-sectional, cohort study(Biomed Central, 2017-08) Philips, Lauren; Visser, Janicke; Nel, Daan; Blaauw, ReneeENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/ diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated ambulatory participants at baseline for IR prevalence via anthropometry, biochemistry and diagnostic IR tests [homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)]. A prospective cohort sub-section study was additionally performed on approximately half of the baseline study population, who were followed-up at two and five months whilst on tuberculosis treatment. Summary statistics, correlation co-efficients and appropriate analysis of variance were used to describe and analyse data. Participants were excluded if they presented with other forms of tuberculosis, were HIV-positive, obese or had any pre-disposing IR conditions such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Results: Fifty-nine participants were included from August 2013 until December 2014 (33.95 ± 12.02 years old; 81. 4% male). IR prevalence was 25.4% at baseline, determined by a calculated HOMA-IR cut-off point of 2.477. Patients with IR were younger (p = 0.04). Although the difference between IR levels in participants between baseline and follow-up was not significant, a decrease was observed over time. The majority of participants (61.0%) presented with a normal BMI at baseline. Mean baseline values of fasting glucose were within normal ranges (4.82 ± 0. 80 mmol/L), whereas increased mean CRP levels (60.18 ± 50.92 mg/L) and decreased mean HDL-cholesterol levels (males: 0.94 ± 0.88 mmol/L; females: 1.14 ± 0.88 mmol/L) were found. Conclusions: The study found an association between tuberculosis and IR development in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Although not significant, IR levels decreased over time, which could be indicative of a clinical improvement. A high prevalence of IR amongst young tuberculosis patients therefore highlights the need for early identification in order to facilitate a reversal of IR and prevent possible IR-related complications.