Browsing by Author "Van Eeden, C. (Christiaan)"
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- ItemThe construction of gene silencing transformation vectors for the introduction of multiple-virus resistance in grapevines(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004-12) Van Eeden, C. (Christiaan); Burger, Johan T.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Genetics.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Viruses are some of the most important pathogens of grapevines. There are no effective chemical treatments, and no grapevine- or other natural resistance genes have been discovered against grapevine infecting viruses. The primary method of grapevine virus control is prevention by biological indexing and molecular- and serological screening of rootstocks and scions before propagation. Due to the spread of grapevine viruses through insect vectors, and in the case of GRSPaV the absence of serological screening, these methods of virus control are not always effective. In the past several methods, from cross-protection to pathogen derived resistance (PDR), have been applied to induce plant virus resistance, but with inconsistent results. In recent years the application of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a naturally occurring plant defense mechanism, to induce targeted virus resistance has achieved great success. The Waterhouse research group has designed plant transformation vectors that facilitate specific virus resistance through PTGS. The primary focus of this study was the production of virus specific transformation vectors for the introduction of grapevine virus resistance. The Waterhouse system has been successfully utilised for the construction of three transformation vectors with the pHannibal vector as backbone. Each vector contains homologous virus coat protein (CP) gene segments, cloned in a complementary conformation upstream and downstream of an intron sequence. The primary vector (pHann-SAScon) contains complementary CP gene segments of both GRSPaV and GLRaV-3 and was designed for the introduction of multiple-virus resistance. For the construction of the primary vector the GRSPaV CP gene was isolated from RSP infected grapevines. A clone of the GLRaV-3 CP gene was acquired. The second vector (pHann- LR3CPsas) contains complementary CP gene segments of GLRaV-3. The third vector (pHann-LR2CPsas) contains complementary CP gene segments of GLRaV-2. The cassette containing the complementary CP gene segments of both GRSPaV and GLRaV-3 was cloned into pART27 (pART27-HSAScon), and used to transform N tabacum cv. Petit Havana (SRI), through A. tumefaciens mediated transformation. Unfortunately potential transformants failed to regenerate on rooting media; hence no molecular tests were performed to confirm transformation. Once successful transformants are generated, infection with a recombinant virus vector (consisting of PYX, the GFP gene as screenable marker and the complementary CP gene segments of both GRSPaV and GLRaV-3) will be used to test for the efficacy of the vectors to induce resistance. A secondary aim was added to this project when a need was identified within the South African viticulture industry for GRSPaV specific antibodies to be used in serological screening. To facilitate future serological detection of GRSPaV, the CP gene was isolated and expressed with a bacterial expression system (pETI4b) within the E. coli BL2I(DE3)pLysS cell line. The expressed protein will be used to generate GRSPaV CP specific antibodies.