Browsing by Author "Tweed, Conor D."
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- ItemBedaquiline, moxifloxacin, pretomanid, and pyrazinamide during the first 8 weeks of treatment of patients with drug-susceptible or drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: a multicentre, open-label, partially randomised, phase 2b trial(Elsevier, 2019) Tweed, Conor D.; Dawson, Rodney; Burger, Divan A.; Conradie, Almari; Crook, Angela M.; Mendel, Carl M.; Conradie, Francesca; Diacon, Andreas H.; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Everitt, Daniel E.; Haraka, Frederick; Li, Mengchun; Van Niekerk, Christo H.; Okwera, Alphonse; Rassool, Mohammed S.; Reither, Klaus; Sebe, Modulakgotla A.; Staples, Suzanne; Variava, Ebrahim; Spigelman, MelvinBackground: New anti-tuberculosis regimens that are shorter, simpler, and less toxic than those that are currently available are needed as part of the global effort to address the tuberculosis epidemic. We aimed to investigate the bactericidal activity and safety profile of combinations of bedaquiline, pretomanid, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide in the first 8 weeks of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, partially randomised, phase 2b trial, we prospectively recruited patients with drug-susceptible or rifampicin-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis from seven sites in South Africa, two in Tanzania, and one in Uganda. Patients aged 18 years or older with sputum smear grade 1+ or higher were eligible for enrolment, and a molecular assay (GeneXpert or MTBDR plus ) was used to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to distinguish between drug-susceptible and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Patients who were HIV positive with a baseline CD4 cell count of less than 100 cells per uL were excluded. Patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using numbered treatment packs with sequential allocation by the pharmacist to receive 56 days of treatment with standard tuberculosis therapy (oral isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol; HRZE), or pretomanid (oral 200 mg daily) and pyrazinamide (oral 1500 mg daily) with either oral bedaquiline 400 mg daily on days 1–14 then 200 mg three times per week (B load PaZ) or oral bedaquiline 200 mg daily (B 200 PaZ). Patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis received 56 days of the B 200 PaZ regimen plus moxifloxacin 400 mg daily (BPaMZ). All treatment groups were open label, and randomisation was not stratified. Patients, trial investigators and staff, pharmacists or dispensers, laboratory staff (with the exception of the mycobacteriology laboratory staff), sponsor staff, and applicable contract research organisations were not masked. The primary efficacy outcome was daily percentage change in time to sputum culture positivity (TTP) in liquid medium over days 0–56 in the drug-susceptible tuberculosis population, based on non-linear mixed-effects regression modelling of log 10 (TTP) over time. The efficacy analysis population contained patients who received at least one dose of medication and who had efficacy data available and had no major protocol violations. The safety population contained patients who received at least one dose of medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02193776 , and all patients have completed follow-up. Findings: Between Oct 24, 2014, and Dec 15, 2015, we enrolled 180 patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (59 were randomly assigned to B load PaZ, 60 to B 200 PaZ, and 61 to HRZE) and 60 patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. 57 patients in the B load PaZ group, 56 in the B 200 PaZ group, and 59 in the HRZE group were included in the primary analysis. B 200 PaZ produced the highest daily percentage change in TTP (5·17% [95% Bayesian credibility interval 4·61–5·77]), followed by B load PaZ (4·87% [4·31–5·47]) and HRZE group (4·04% [3·67–4·42]). The bactericidal activity in B 200 PaZ and B load PaZ groups versus that in the HRZE group was significantly different. Higher proportions of patients in the B load PaZ (six [10%] of 59) and B 200 PaZ (five [8%] of 60) groups discontinued the study drug than in the HRZE group (two [3%] of 61) because of adverse events. Liver enzyme elevations were the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events and resulted in the withdrawal of ten patients (five [8%] in the B load PaZ group, three [5%] in the B 200 PaZ group, and two [3%] in the HRZE group). Serious treatment-related adverse events affected two (3%) patients in the B load PaZ group and one (2%) patient in the HRZE group. Seven (4%) patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis died and four (7%) patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis died. None of the deaths were considered to be related to treatment. Interpretation: B 200 PaZ is a promising regimen to treat patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis. The bactericidal activity of both these regimens suggests that they have the potential to shorten treatment, and the simplified dosing schedule of B 200 PaZ could improve treatment adherence in the field. However, these findings must be investigated further in a phase 3 trial assessing treatment outcomes. Funding: TB Alliance, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US Agency for International Development, Directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands, Irish Aid, Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research of Germany.
- ItemToxicity associated with tuberculosis chemotherapy in the REMoxTB study(BioMed Central, 2018-07-11) Tweed, Conor D.; Crook, Angela M.; Amukoye, Evans I.; Dawson, Rodney; Diacon, Andreas H.; Hanekom, Madeline; McHugh, Timothy D.; Mendel, Carl M.; Meredith, Sarah K.; Murphy, Michael E.; Murthy, Saraswathi E.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Singh, Kasha P.; Spigelman, Melvin; Wills, Genevieve H.; Gillespie, Stephen H.Background: The incidence and severity of tuberculosis chemotherapy toxicity is poorly characterised. We used data available from patients in the REMoxTB trial to provide an assessment of the risks associated with the standard regimen and two experimental regimens containing moxifloxacin. Methods: All grade 3 & 4 adverse events (AEs) and their relationship to treatment for patients who had taken at least one dose of therapy in the REMoxTB clinical trial were recorded. Univariable logistic regression was used to test the relationship of baseline characteristics to the incidence of grade 3 & 4 AEs and significant characteristics (p < 0.10) were incorporated into a multivariable model. The timing of AEs during therapy was analysed in standard therapy and the experimental arms. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between AEs (total and related-only) and microbiological cure on treatment. Results: In the standard therapy arm 57 (8.9%) of 639 patients experienced ≥1 related AEs with 80 of the total 113 related events (70.8%) occurring in the intensive phase of treatment. Both four-month experimental arms (“isoniazid arm” with moxifloxacin substituted for ethambutol & “ethambutol arm” with moxifloxacin substituted for isoniazid) had a lower total of related grade 3 & 4 AEs than standard therapy (63 & 65 vs 113 AEs). Female gender (adjOR 1.97, 95% CI 0.91–1.83) and HIV-positive status (adjOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.55–7.14) were significantly associated with experiencing ≥1 related AE (p < 0.05) on standard therapy. The most common adverse events on standard therapy related to hepatobiliary, musculoskeletal and metabolic disorders. Patients who experienced ≥1 related AE were more likely to fail treatment or relapse (adjOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.59–6.10, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Most AEs considered related to standard therapy occurred in the intensive phase of treatment with female patients and HIV-positive patients demonstrating a significantly higher risk of AEs during treatment. Almost a tenth of standard therapy patients had a significant side effect, whereas both experimental arms recorded a lower incidence of toxicity. That patients with one or more AE are more likely to fail treatment suggests that treatment outcomes could be improved by identifying such patients through targeted monitoring.
- ItemToxicity related to standard TB therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment outcomes in the REMoxTB study according to HIV status(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2019-08-14) Tweed, Conor D.; Crook, Angela M.; Dawson, Rodney; Diacon, Andreas H.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Mendel, Carl M.; Meredith, Sarah K.; Mohapi, Lerato; Murphy, Michael E.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Singh, Kasha P.; Spigelman, Melvin; Gillespie, Stephen H.Background: The phase III REMoxTB study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive (with CD4+ count > 250 cells, not on anti-retroviral therapy) and HIV-negative patients. We investigated the incidence of adverse events and cure rates according to HIV status for patients receiving standard TB therapy in the trial. Methods: Forty-two HIV-positive cases were matched to 220 HIV-negative controls by age, gender, ethnicity, and trial site using coarsened exact matching. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs) were summarised by MedDRA System Organ Class. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to first grade 3 or 4 AE were constructed according to HIV status with hazard ratios calculated. Patients were considered cured if they were culture negative 18 months after commencing therapy with ≥2 consecutive negative culture results. Results: Twenty of 42 (47.6%) HIV-positive and 34 of 220 (15.5%) HIV-negative patients experienced ≥1 grade 3 or 4 AE, respectively. The majority of these were hepatobiliary disorders that accounted for 12 of 40 (30.0%) events occurring in 6 of 42 (14.3%) HIV-positive patients and for 15 of 60 (25.0%) events occurring in 9 of 220 (4.1%) HIVnegative patients. The median time to first grade 3 or 4 AE was 54 days (IQR 15.5–59.0) for HIV-positive and 29.5 days (IQR 9.0–119.0) for HIV-negative patients, respectively. The hazard ratio for experiencing a grade 3 or 4 AE among HIV-positive patients was 3.25 (95% CI 1.87–5.66, p < 0.01). Cure rates were similar, with 38 of 42 (90.5%) HIV-positive and 195 of 220 (88.6%) HIV-negative patients (p = 0.73) cured at 18 months. Conclusions: HIV-positive patients receiving standard TB therapy in the REMoxTB study were at greater risk of adverse events during treatment but cure rates were similar when compared to a matched sample of HIV-negative patients.