Browsing by Author "Thomas, Angelique"
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- ItemHouseholds, fluidity, and HIV service delivery in Zambia and South Africa – an exploratory analysis of longitudinal qualitative data from the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial(Wiley Open Access, 2018) Hoddinott, Graeme; Myburgh, Hanlie; De Villiers, Laing; Ndubani, Rhoda; Mantantana, Jabulile; Thomas, Angelique; Mbewe, Madalitso; Ayles, Helen; Bock, Peter; Seeley, Janet; Shanaube, Kwame; Hargreaves, James; Bond, Virginia; Reynolds, LindseyIntroduction: Population distributions, family and household compositions, and people’s sense of belonging and social stability in southern Africa have been shaped by tumultuous, continuing large-scale historical disruptions. As a result, many people experience high levels of geographic and social fluidity, which intersect with individual and population-level migration patterns. We describe the complexities of household fluidity and HIV service access in South Africa and Zambia to explore implications for health systems and service delivery in contexts of high household fluidity. Methods: HPTN 071 (PopART) is a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in 21 peri-urban study communities in Zambia and South Africa between 2013 and 2018. A qualitative cohort nested in the trial included 148 purposively sampled households. Data collection was informed by ethnographic and participatory research principles. The analysis process was reflexive and findings are descriptive narrative summaries of emergent ideas. Results: Households in southern Africa are extremely fluid, with people having a tenuous sense of security in their social networks. This fluidity intersects with high individual and population mobility. To characterize fluidity, we describe thematic patterns of household membership and residence. We also identify reasons people give for moving around and shifting social ties, including economic survival, fostering interpersonal relationships, participating in cultural, traditional, religious, or familial gatherings, being institutionalized, and maintaining patterns of substance use. High fluidity disrupted HIV service access for some participants. Despite these challenges, many participants were able to regularly access HIV testing services and participants living with HIV were especially resourceful in maintaining continuity of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We identify three key features of health service interactions that facilitated care continuity: disclosure to family members, understanding attitudes among health services staff including flexibility to accommodate clients’ transient pressures, and participants’ agency in ARTrelated decisions. Conclusions: Choices made to manage one’s experiential sense of household fluidity are intentional responses to livelihood and social support constraints. To enhance retention in care for people living with HIV, policy makers and service providers should focus on creating responsive, flexible health service delivery systems designed to accommodate many shifts in client circumstances.
- ItemSpinning plates : livelihood mobility, household responsibility and anti-retroviral treatment in an urban Zambian community during the HPTN 071 (PopART) study(Wiley Open Access, 2018) Bond, Virginia; Ngwenya, Fredrick; Thomas, Angelique; Simuyaba, Melvin; Hoddinott, Graeme; Fidler, Sarah; Hayes, Richard; Ayles, Helen; Seeley, JanetIntroduction: Qualitative data are lacking on the impact of mobility among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their decisionmaking around anti-retroviral treatment (ART). We describe challenges of juggling household responsibility, livelihood mobility and HIV management for six PLHIV in urban Zambia. Methods: Six PLHIV (three men and three women, aged 21 to 44) were recruited from different geographic zones in one urban community drawn from a qualitative cohort in a social science component of a cluster-randomized trial (HPTN071 PopART). Participants were on ART (n = 2), not on ART (n = 2) and had started and stopped ART (n = 2). At least two in-depth interviews and participant observations, and three drop-in household visits with each were carried out between February and August 2017. Themed and comparative analysis was conducted. Results: The six participants relied on the informal economy to meet basic household needs. Routine livelihood mobility, either within the community and to a nearby town centre, or further afield for longer periods of time, was essential to get by. Although aware of ART benefits, only one of the six participants managed to successfully access and sustain treatment. The other five struggled to find time to access ART alongside other priorities, routine mobility and when daily routines were more chaotic. Difficulty in accessing ART was exacerbated by local health facility factors (congestion, a culture of reprimanding PLHIV who miss appointments, sporadic rationed drug supply), stigma and more limited social capital. Conclusions: Using a time-space framework illustrated how household responsibility, livelihood mobility and HIV management every day were like spinning plates, each liable to topple and demanding constant attention. If universal lifelong ART is to be delivered, the current service model needs to adjust the limited time that some PLHIV have to access ART because of household responsibilities and the need to earn a living moving around, often away from home. Practical strategies that could facilitate ART access in the context of livelihood mobility include challenging the practice of reprimand, improving drug supply, having ART services more widely distributed, mapped and available at night and weekends, and an effective centralized client health information system.
- ItemStigma and HIV service access among transfeminine and gender diverse women in South Africa – a narrative analysis of longitudinal qualitative data from the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-12-10) De Villiers, Laing; Thomas, Angelique; Jivan, Dionne; Hoddinott, Graeme; Hargreaves, James R.; Bond, Virginia; Stangl, Anne; Bock, Peter; Reynolds, LindseyBackground: Transgender women have a disproportionately high HIV prevalence compared to cisgender women and men who have sex with men, which puts them at risk of HIV-related stigma (Baral SD et al., Lancet Infect Dis, 13;3, 2013). People whose gender identities are in tension with dominant social norms (including transgender women) often also experience gender identity-related stigma. There has been increasing attention to transgender people in HIV research and interventions. However, very little research has been done in sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: We conducted a qualitative cohort study which included eight transfeminine and/or gender diverse women (four living with HIV) in Western Cape, South Africa, for a follow-up period of 12–18 months. Using a narrative analysis approach, we set out to understand how transfeminine and gender diverse participants in the cohort anticipated, experienced and internalised HIV stigma and gender identity stigma, and how these stigmas affected HIV service access. Result: We found that participants reported anticipated, experienced, and internalised stigma relating both to their gender identity and to living with HIV. Participants reported inconsistent uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services (including ART initiation and adherence) that they linked to stigma. We also found that gender diverse women and transfeminine women are challenged with other stigmatising social identities, like being a sex worker, drug user and/or a man (or assigned male sex at birth) who have sex with men (MSM). We use the terms ‘transfeminine’ and ‘gender diverse’ as terms that are inclusive of gender variant people who were all assigned male sex at birth and identify as women in some or all aspects of their lives. The persons in our study also showed gender identifications that were fluid and sometimes varied in different contexts and situations, therefore gender identity and sexual identity were often conflated for these individuals. Participants managed high levels of reported stigma by drawing on social support networks like families, friends and peers. Conclusion: Our study provides exploratory work on how stigma may affect HIV services uptake amongst gender diverse women and transfeminine women in South Africa. We recommend future studies to further explore the unique HIV risks of gender diverse individuals.