Browsing by Author "Rabie, H."
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- ItemA survey of paediatric HIV programmatic and clinical management practices in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa - the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD,, 2013) Niyongabo, T.; Bukuru, H.; Nduwimana, M.; Kariyo, P.; Mbaya, M.; Mukumbi, H.; Ilunga, B.; Obama, M. T.; Kamgaing, N.; Akam, W.; Atibu, J.; Azinyue, I.; Rabie, H.
- ItemAntiretroviral therapy for the management of HIV in children(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2014-12) Frigati, L.; Cotton, Mark F.; Rabie, H.Since 2004, when antiretroviral therapy (ART) was first available to children through the National Department of Health, there has been significant progress in preventing and treating paediatric HIV. Large cohort studies and prospective trials confirmed that young children require early diagnosis with rapid access to ART regardless of CD4+ lymphocyte count. Studies also confirmed the importance of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors during therapy, regardless of prior nevirapine exposure. As prevention strengthens and the paediatric population ages, the goal posts are shifting towards even earlier diagnosis, targeting newborn infants on the first day of life and also the perinatally infected adolescent. There is an increasing focus on the long-term health, social, developmental and scholastic outcomes of HIV-infected children. Clinicians require new skills to assist children with transition into adulthood. In this article we focus on the care of infants and children.
- ItemBacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and the COVID-19 pandemic : responsible stewardship is needed(The Union, 2020) Schaaf, H. S.; Du Preez, K.; Kruger, M.; Solomons, R.; Taljaard, J. J.; Rabie, H.; Seddon, J. A.; Cotton, M. F.; Tebruegge, M.; Curtis, N.; Hesseling, A. C.We believe that responsible stewardship of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic is urgently needed. Live attenuated BCG is currently the only licensed vaccine to protect against tuberculosis (TB). Neonatal BCG vaccination has proven efficacy in protecting infants and young children against life-threatening disseminated forms of TB, including TB meningitis and miliary TB.
- ItemBCG vaccination in South African HIV-exposed infants : risks and benefits(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009-02) Hesseling, A. C.; Caldwell, J.; Cotton, M. F.; Eley, B. S.; Jaspan, H. B.; Jennings, K.; Marais, B. J.; Nuttall, J.; Rabie, H.; Roux, P.; Schaaf, H. Simon
- ItemCOVID-19 response in low- and middle-income countries : don’t overlook the role of mobile phone communication(Elsevier, 2020-07-26) Verhagen, Lilly M.; de Groot, R.; Lawrence, C. A.; Taljaard, J.; Cotton, M. F.; Rabie, H.Estimates of health capacities in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not operationally ready to manage this health emergency. Motivated by worldwide successes in other infectious disease epidemics and our experience in Sub-Saharan Africa, we support mobile phone communication to improve data collection and reporting, communication between healthcare workers, public health institutions, and patients, and the implementation of disease tracking and subsequent risk-stratified isolation measures. Programmatic action is needed for centrally coordinated reporting and communication systems facilitating mobile phones in crisis management plans for addressing the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. We summarize examples of worldwide mobile phone technology initiatives that have enhanced patient care and public health outcomes in previous epidemics and the current COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we provide an overview of baseline conditions, including transparency about privacy guarantees, necessary for the successful use of mobile phones in assisting in the fight against COVID-19 spread.
- ItemFatal hepatitis B infection despite immunization in an HIV-infected infant: A possible case of vaccine failure and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome(2010) Van der Linden, D.; Cotton, M.; Rabie, H.; McKerrow, N.We report a case of hepatitis B immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an 8-month-old girl with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. In resource-constrained countries, HIV-hepatitis B co-infections are often difficult to diagnose and to treat. We highlight on the importance of hepatitis B and HIV screening in pregnant women, to implement efficient preventive measures. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
- ItemGuideline for the prevention, diagnosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis among HIV-infected persons : 2013 update(AOSIS, 2013) Govender, N. P.; Meintjies, G.; Bicanic, T.; Dawood, H.; Harrison, T. S.; Jarvis, J. N.; Karstaedt, A. S.; Maartens, D.; McCarthy, K. M.; Rabie, H.; Variava, E.; Venter, W. D. F.; Boulware, D. R.; Chiller, T.; Meya, D. B.; Scriven, J.Six years after the first Society guidelines were published, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in South Africa. Several important developments have spurred the publication of updated guidelines to manage this common fungal opportunistic infection. Recommendations described here include: (1) screening and pre-emptive treatment; (2) laboratory diagnosis and monitoring; (3) management of a first episode of CM; (4) amphotericin B deoxycholate toxicity prevention, monitoring and management; (5) timing of antiretroviral therapy among patients with CM; (6) management of raised intracranial pressure; (7) management of relapse episodes of CM.
- ItemHorizontal HIV transmission to children of HIV-uninfected mothers : a case series and review of the global literature(Elsevier, 2020-09-01) Myburgh, D.; Rabie, H.; Slogrove, A. L.; Edson, C.; Cotton, M. F.; Dramowski, A.Background: Vertical transmission is the predominant route for acquisition of HIV infection in children, either in utero, intrapartum or postnatally through breast feeding. Less frequently, children may acquire HIV by horizontal transmission. Horizontal transmission may be healthcare-associated (infusion of HIV-contaminated blood products, use of contaminated needles, syringes and medical equipment, or through ingestion of HIV in expressed breastmilk). Community-acquired HIV transmission to children may occur following surrogate breastfeeding, pre-mastication of food, and sexual abuse. Methods: Children with suspected horizontally acquired HIV infection were identified by retrospective folder review of existing patients (2004–2014) and by prospective interview and examination of new patients (from 2009 onwards), at a hospital-based paediatric antiretroviral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. The global literature on horizontal HIV transmission to children (1 January 1986–1 November 2019) was reviewed, to contextualize the local findings. Results: Among the 32 children with horizontal HIV transmission (15 identified retrospectively and 17 prospectively), the median age at first diagnosis was 79 months (interquartile range 28.5–91.5); most children (90.6%) had advanced HIV disease at presentation. HIV transmission was considered healthcare-associated in 15 (46.9%), community-associated in ten (31.3%), possibly healthcare or community-associated in five (15.6 %); and unknown in two children (6.3%). Conclusion: Horizontal HIV transmission to children is an important public health issue, with prevention efforts requiring intervention at healthcare facility- and community-level. Greater effort should be made to promptly identify and comprehensively investigate each horizontally HIV-infected child to establish possible routes of transmission and inform future prevention strategies.
- ItemLeadership and early strategic response to the SARS-CoV- 2 pandemic at a COVID-19 designated hospital in South Africa(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2020-04-23) Parker, A.; Karamchand, S.; Schrueder, N.; Lahri, S.; Rabie, H.; Aucamp, A.; Abrahams, R.; Ciapparelli, P.; Erasmus, D. S.; Cotton, M. F.; Lalla, U.; Leisegang, Rory; Meintjes, J.; Mistry, R.; Moosa, M. R.; Mowlana, A.; Koegelenberg, C. F. N.; Prozesky, H.; Smith, W.; Van Schalkwyk, M.; Taljaard, J. J.While many countries are preparing to face the COVID-19 pandemic, the reported cases in Africa remain low. With a high burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease and a resource-constrained public healthcare system, sub-Saharan Africa is preparing for the coming crisis as best it can. We describe our early response as a designated COVID-19 provincial hospital in Cape Town, South Africa (SA).While the first cases reported were related to international travel, at the time of writing there was evidence of early community spread. The SA government announced a countrywide lockdown from midnight 26 March 2020 to midnight 30 April 2020 to stem the pandemic and save lives. However, many questions remain on how the COVID-19 threat will unfold in SA, given the significant informal sector overcrowding and poverty in our communities. There is no doubt that leadership and teamwork at all levels is critical in influencing outcomes.
- ItemManagement of upper respiratory tract infections in children(Taylor & Francis, 2008) Cotton, M. F.; Innes, S.; Jaspan, H.; Madide, A.; Rabie, H.Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major cause of mild morbidity. It has a high cost to society, being responsible for absenteeism from school and work and unnecessary medical care, and is occasionally associated with serious sequelae. URTIs are usually caused by several families of virus; these are the rhinovirus, coronavirus, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza, enterovirus and the recently discovered bocavirus. This review will mainly focus on the rhinovirus, where significant advances have been made in understanding the epidemiology, natural history and relationship with other pathogens.
- ItemNeonatal and paediatric bloodstream infections : pathogens, antimicrobial resistance patterns and prescribing practice at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2018) Crichton, H.; O'Connell, N.; Rabie, H.; Whitelaw, A. C.; Dramowski, AngelaBackground. The epidemiology of neonatal and paediatric community-acquired and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) at South African (SA) district hospitals is under-researched. Objective. Retrospective review of neonatal and paediatric BSI (0 - 13 years) at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, SA, over 3 years (1 March 2012 - 28 February 2015). Methods. We used laboratory, hospital, patient and prescription data to determine BSI rates, blood culture yield and contamination rates, pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance, patient demographics, BSI outcome and antibiotic prescribing practice. Results. From 7 427 blood cultures submitted, the pathogen yield was low (2.1%, 156/7 427) while blood culture contamination rates were high (10.5%, 782/7 427). Paediatric and neonatal BSI rates were 4.5 and 1.4/1 000 patient days, respectively. Gram-positive BSI predominated (59.3%); Staphylococcus aureus (26.8%) and Escherichia coli (21.6%) were common pathogens. The median patient age was 3 months, with a predominance of males (57.7%) and a 12.8% prevalence of HIV infection. Crude BSI-associated mortality was 7.1% (11/156), the death rate being higher in neonates than in infants and children (6/40 (15.0%) v. 5/116 (4.3%), respectively; p=0.03) and in patients with Gram-negative compared with Gram-positive bacteraemia (6/66 (9.1%) v. 5/89 (5.6%), respectively; p=0.5). Most BSI episodes were community-acquired (138/156; 88.5%), with high levels of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage among Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli isolates (5/5 (100%) and 8/33 (24.2%), respectively). Antimicrobial management of BSI was inappropriate in 30.6% of cases (45/147), including incorrect empirical antibiotic (46.7%), dual antibiotic cover (33.3%) and inappropriately broad-spectrum antibiotic use (17.8%). Conclusions. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens (notably ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae) were common in community-acquired BSI. Paediatric clinicians at district hospitals require ongoing training in antibiotic stewardship and blood culture sampling.
- ItemNitazoxanide for severe cryptosporidial diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus infected children(2008) Abraham, D. R.; Rabie, H.; Cotton, M. F.[No abstract available]
- ItemOtorrhoea is a marker for symptomatic disease in HIV-infected children(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2007) Karpakis, J.; Rabie, H.; Howard, J.; Van Rensburg, A. J.; Cotton, M. F.Background. Chronic otorrhoea occurs commonly in HIV-infected children. However, there are few data on incidence and severity. Objective. To document the prevalence of otorrhoea in the clinic attendees. Methods. A retrospective chart review was done of all HIV-I infected children seen at the Family Clinic for HIV from 1 February 1997 to 31 December 2001, a period preceding widespread availability of antiretrovirals: Otorrhoea was classified into two groups, viz. group 1 (mild): an episode lasting less than 1 month, and group 2 (severe): an episode lasting more than 1 month or more than 1 episode of otorrhoea. The clinical and immune stages of the children were noted. Results. Of 326 children seen during the study period, 104 (32%) had otorrhoea. Forty-five (13.8%) had mild and 59 (18.1%) severe otorrhoea. Two hundred and eighty-eight (88.6%) had either Centers for Disease Control stage B or C disease. The median CD4 percentage in children with otorrhoea was 17.5% (8.3 - 23%) versus 21% (14 - 28%) in those without otorrhoea (p=0.004). The odds ratio (OR) of children in stage B or C not having severe otorrhoea was 0.1 (0.01 - 0.72, p = 0.013). The OR for immune class 2 or 3 without severe otorrhoea was 0.39 (0.18 - 0.85, p = 0.021). Conclusions. Otorrhoea contributes to the morbidity of HIV infection in children. It is a marker for symptomatic disease and CD4 depletion and should be included in clinical classification.
- ItemPaediatric ART outcomes in a decentralised model of care in Cape Town, South Africa(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-01-05) Morsheimer, M. M.; Dramowski, Angela; Rabie, H.; Cotton, M. F.Background. Although subSaharan Africa faces the world’s largest paediatric HIV epidemic, only 1 in 4 children has access to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). A decentralised approach to HIV care is advocated, but programmes in resource-limited settings encounter many challenges to community-initiated paediatric ART implementation. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of 613 children receiving ART between 2004 and 2009 was performed in seven physician-run primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in Cape Town. Baseline characteristics, serial CD4+, viral load (VL) levels and status at study closure were collected. Results. Two subgroups were identified: children who were initiated on ART in a PHC clinic (n=343) and children who were down-referred from tertiary hospitals (n=270). The numbers of children initiated on ART in PHC increased sevenfold over the study period. Down-referred children were severely ill at ART initiation, with higher VLs, lower CD4+ counts and higher rates of tuberculosis co-infection (25.3% v. 16.9%; p=0.01). Median time to virological suppression was 29 weeks in PHC-ART initiates and 44 weeks in children down-referred (p<0.0001). Children down-referred to PHC either maintained or gained virological suppression. Longitudinal cohort analysis demonstrated sustained VL suppression >80%, high rates of immune reconstitution and low mortality.Conclusions. Increasing numbers of children are initiated on ART in PHC settings and achieve comparable immunological, virological and survival outcomes, suggesting successful decentralisation of paediatric HIV care. Down-referral of children with adherence-related virological failure may assist with attainment of virological suppression and sparing use of second-line medications.
- ItemThe Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children Project: a neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial web-based point prevalence survey in 73 hospitals worldwide(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, USA, PA,19106-3621, 2013) Versporten, A.; Sharland, M.; Bielicki, J.; Drapier, N.; Vankerckhoven, V.; Goossens, H.; Cooper, C.; Lee, L. Y.; Whitehouse, J.; Bryant, P. A.; Haeusler, G.; Curtis, N.; Finlayson, H.; Rabie, H.; Cotton, M. F.; Dramowski, Angela
- ItemUnexplained HIV-1 infection in children : documenting cases and assessing for possible risk factors(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2004-03) Hiemstra, R.; Rabie, H.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Eley, B.; Cameron, N.; Mehtar, Shaheen; Janse van Rensburg, A.; Cotton, M. F.Background. In the year 2000 we reported possible horizontal transmission of HIV-1 infection between two siblings. An investigation of three families, each with an HIV-infected child but seronegative parents, permitted this finding. Sexual abuse and surrogate breast-feeding were though unlikely. The children had overlapping hospitalisation in a regional hospital. Since then several cases of unexplained HIV infection in children have been reported. A registry was established at Tygerberg Children's Hospital for collection of data on the extent of horizontal or unexplained transmission of HIV in children. Study design. Retrospective chart review. Results. Fourteen children were identified, 12 from the Western Cape and 1 each from the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Thirteen (92%) had been hospitalised previously. In the Western Cape, children had been hospitalised in 8 hospitals. Ten of 13 (77%) were admitted as neonates and 9 of 13 (69%0 had 2 or more admissions. Intravascular cannulation and intravenous drug administration occurred in all but 2 children before HIV diagnosis. Conclusion. We have confirmed HIV infection in a number of cases where the source of infection has been inadequately explained. Circumstantial evidence supports but does not prove nosocomial transmission. Further studies and identification of medical procedures conducive to the spread of HIV are urgently needed.