Browsing by Author "Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel"
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- ItemAllocation of scarce resources in Africa during COVID‐19 : utility and justice for the bottom of the pyramid?(John Wiley & Sons, 2020-08-26) Moodley, Keymanthri; Rennie, Stuart; Behets, Frieda; Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Yemesi, Robert; Ravez, Laurent; Kayembe, Patrick; Makindu, Darius; Mwinga, Alwyn; Jaoko, WalterThe COVID‐19 pandemic has raised important universal public health challenges. Conceiving ethical responses to these challenges is a public health imperative but must take context into account. This is particularly important in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, we examine how some of the ethical recommendations offered so far in high‐income countries might appear from a SSA perspective. We also reflect on some of the key ethical challenges raised by the COVID‐19 pandemic in low‐income countries suffering from chronic shortages in health care resources, and chronic high morbidity and mortality from non‐COVID‐19 causes. A parallel is drawn between the distribution of severity of COVID‐19 disease and the classic “Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid” model that is relevant in SSA. Focusing allocation of resources during COVID‐19 on the ‘thick’ part of the pyramid in Low‐to‐Middle Income Countries (LMICs) could be ethically justified on utilitarian and social justice grounds, since it prioritizes a large number of persons who have been economically and socially marginalized. During the pandemic, importing allocation frameworks focused on the apex of the pyramid from the global north may therefore not always be appropriate. In a post‐COVID‐19 world, we need to think strategically about how health care systems can be financed and structured to ensure broad access to adequate health care for all who need it. The root problems underlying health inequity, exposed by COVID‐19, must be addressed, not just to prepare for the next pandemic, but to care for people in resource poor settings in non‐pandemic times.
- ItemAnalyses of HIV-1 integrase sequences prior to South African national HIV-treatment program and availability of integrase inhibitors in Cape Town, South Africa(Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Brado, Dominik; Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Ikomey, George Mondinde; Cloete, Ruben; Singh, Kamalendra; Engelbrecht, Susan; Neogi, Ujjwal; Jacobs, Graeme BrendonENGLISH ABSTRACT: HIV-Integrase (IN) has proven to be a viable target for highly specific HIV-1 therapy. We aimed to characterize the HIV-1 IN gene in a South African context and identify resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) against available first and second generation Integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). We performed genetic analyses on 91 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients, as well as 314 treatment-naive South African HIV-1 IN-sequences, downloaded from Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database. Genotypic analyses revealed the absence of major RAMs in the cohort collected before the broad availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and INSTI in South Africa, however, occurred at a rate of 2.85% (9/314) in database derived sequences. RAMs were present at IN-positions 66, 92, 143, 147 and 148, all of which may confer resistance to Raltegravir (RAL) and Elvitegravir (EVG), but are unlikely to affect second-generation Dolutegravir (DTG), except mutations in the Q148 pathway. Furthermore, protein modeling showed, naturally occurring polymorphisms impact the stability of the intasome-complex and therefore may contribute to an overall potency against InSTIs. Our data suggest the prevalence of InSTI RAMs, against InSTIs, is low in South Africa, but natural polymorphisms and subtype-specific differences may influence the effect of individual treatment regimens.
- ItemCharacterization of HIV-1 subtype B near full-length genome sequences identified at the start of HIV epidemic in South Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Jacobs, Graeme Brendon; Engelbrecht, Susan; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Pathology. Medical Virology.ENGLISH SUMMARY: South Africa is home to approximately 20.0% of the global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected population. The first reported cases of HIV-1 in the country were described in 1982 amongst the homosexual male population. This was attributed to HIV-1 subtypes B (HIV-1B) and D (HIV-1D). Since the late 1980s HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C), spread mainly through heterosexual contact, has been the driving force of the epidemic. To date, only six HIV-1B near full-length genome (NFLG) sequences from South Africa are available in the Los Alamos National Laboratory database (LANL). During this study we retrieved five HIV-1B positive samples from homosexual and bi-sexual males, stored for up to 30 years, from the early 1980s, for further characterization. The NFLG amplification reactions were performed using a modern Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocol designed to target two overlapping proviral DNA HIV genome fragments, 5.5 kb and 3.7 kb in size, respectively. All positive PCR products were sequenced to characterize the viruses. The sequences were checked and edited manually using Sequencher V5. Multiple sequence alignments were created using Clustal W and Maft V7. The sequences were subtyped using the REGA V3.0, RIP V3.0 and jumping profile Hidden Markov Model (jpHMM) online subtyping programmes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were drawn using MEGA V6. Four of the five HIV-1 patient sequences were subtyped as pure HIV-1B. One sequence, ZA|85|R605, was characterized as a novel HIV-1 BD recombinant. This is the first NFLG HIV-1 BD recombinant ever described and indicates that recombination events were most likely already happening at the early stage of the South African epidemic. Two patient sequences, ZA|87|R1296 and ZA|87|R459, clusters with HIV-1B sequences from the United States of America (USA). The sequence from patient ZA|87|R68 clusters with a HIV-1B sequence from France and the sequence of ZA|87|R526 clusters with another South African HIV-1B sequence. Homosexual flight stewards, international tourists and migrants from the European and North American countries were most likely responsible for the introduction of the HIV-1B epidemic into South Africa. The findings of this study provides valuable insights from the beginning of the HIV-1 epidemic in South Africa. We highlight the importance of characterizing complete viral genomes from early archival specimens to give a more detailed picture of landmarks of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. We show that NFLG sequencing is an important tool for the identification of recombinant viral strains. This study can form the basis for continued research in our attempt to reconstruct the epidemiology and evolutionary history of HIV in South Africa. The HIV-1 epidemic is dynamic in nature and is constantly changing.
- ItemClinical Ethics Committees in Africa : lost in the shadow of RECs/IRBs?(BioMed Central, 2020) Moodley, Keymanthri; Kabanda, Siti Mukaumbya; Soldaat, Leza; Kleinsmidt, Anita; Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Kling, SharonBackground: Clinical Ethics Committees (CECs) are well established at healthcare institutions in resource-rich countries. However, there is limited information on established CECs in resource poor countries, especially in Africa. This study aimed to establish baseline data regarding existing formal CECs in Africa to raise awareness of and to encourage the establishment of CECs or Clinical Ethics Consultation Services (CESs) on the continent. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken using an online questionnaire via SunSurveys to survey healthcare professionals and bioethicists in Africa. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and Fischer’s exact test was applied to determine associations. Texts from the open-ended questions were thematically analysed. Results: In total 109 participants from 37 African countries completed the survey in December 2019. A significant association was found between participants’ bioethics qualification or training and involvement in clinical ethics (p = 0.005). All participants were familiar with Research Ethics Committees (RECs), and initially conflated RECs with CECs. When CECs were explained in detail, approximately 85.3% reported that they had no formal CECs in their institutions. The constraints to developing CECs included lack of training, limited resources, and lack of awareness of CECs. However, the majority of participants (81.7%) were interested in establishing CECs. Participants listed assistance required in establishing CECs including funding, resources, capacity building and collaboration with other known CECs. The results do not reflect CECs established since the onset of COVID-19 in Africa. Conclusions: This study provides a first look into CECs in Africa and found very few formal CECs on the continent indicating an urgent need for the establishment of CECs or CESs in Africa. While the majority of healthcare professionals and bioethicists are aware of ethical dilemmas in healthcare, the concept of formal CECs is foreign. This study served to raise awareness of CECs. Research ethics and RECs overshadow CECs in Africa because international funders from the global north support capacity development in research ethics and establish RECs to approve the research they fund in Africa. Raising awareness via educational opportunities, research and conferences about CECs and their role in improving the quality of health care in Africa is sorely needed. Keywords: Clinical ethics committees, Clinical ethics consultation service, Africa, Developing countries, Ethics, Clinical ethics, Dilemma
- ItemCOVID‑19 underscores the important role of clinical ethics committees in Africa(BioMed Central, 2021) Moodley, Keymanthri; Kabanda, Siti Mukaumbya; Kleinsmidt, Anita; Obasa, Adetayo EmmanuelBackground: The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified pre-existing challenges in healthcare in Africa. Long-standing health inequities, embedded in the continent over centuries, have been laid bare and have raised complex ethical dilemmas. While there are very few clinical ethics committees (CECs) in Africa, the demand for such services exists and has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The views of African healthcare professionals or bioethicists on the role of CECs in Africa have not been explored or documented previously. In this study, we aim to explore such perspectives, as well as the challenges preventing the establishment of CECs in Africa. Methods: Twenty healthcare professionals and bioethicists from Africa participated in this qualitative study that utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. Themes were identified through thematic analysis of interviews and open-ended responses. Results: Kenya and South Africa are the only countries on the continent with formal established CECs. The following themes emerged from this qualitative study: (1) Lack of formal CECs and resolution of ethical dilemmas; (2) Role of CECs during COVID-19; (3) Ethical dilemmas presented to CECs pre-COVID-19; (4) Lack of awareness of CECs; (5) Lack of qualified bioethicists or clinical ethicists; (6) Limited resources to establish CECs; (7) Creating interest in CECs and networking. Conclusions: This study illustrates the importance of clinical ethics education among African HCPs and bioethicists, more so now when COVID-19 has posed a host of clinical and ethical challenges to public and private healthcare systems. The challenges and barriers identified will inform the establishment of CECs or clinical ethics consultation services (CESs) in the region. The study results have triggered an idea for the creation of a network of African CECs.
- ItemDrug resistance mutations against protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase inhibitors in people living with HIV-1 receiving boosted protease inhibitors in South Africa(Frontiers Media, 2020) Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Mikasi, Sello Given; Brado, Dominik; Cloete, Ruben; Singh, Kamlendra; Neogi, Ujjwal; Jacobs, Graeme BrendonThe South African national combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) roll-out program started in 2006, with over 4.4 million people accessing treatment since it was first introduced. HIV-1 drug resistance can hamper the success of cART. This study determined the patterns of HIV-1 drug-resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in People Living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1). Receiving first (for children below 3 years of age) and second-line (for adults) cART regimens in South Africa. During 2017 and 2018, 110 patients plasma samples were selected, 96 samples including those of 17 children and infants were successfully analyzed. All patients were receiving a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) as part of their cART regimen. The viral sequences were analyzed for RAMs through genotypic resistance testing. We performed genotypic resistance testing (GRT) for Protease inhibitors (PIs), Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). Viral sequences were subtyped using REGAv3 and COMET. Based on the PR/RT sequences, HIV-1 subtypes were classified as 95 (99%) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) while one sample as 02_AG. Integrase sequencing was successful for 89 sequences, and all the sequences were classified as HIV-1C (99%, 88/89) except one sequence classified CRF02_AG, as observed in PR/RT. Of the 96 PR/RT sequences analyzed, M184V/I (52/96; 54%) had the most frequent RAM nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). The most frequent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) RAM was K103N/S (40/96, 42%). Protease inhibitor (PI) RAMs M46I and V82A were present in 12 (13%) of the sequences analyzed. Among the InSTI major RAM two (2.2%) sequences have Y143R and T97A mutations while one sample had T66I. The accessory RAM E157Q was identified in two (2.2%). The data indicates that the majority of the patients failed on bPIs didn’t have any mutation; therefore adherence could be major issue in these groups of individuals. We propose continued viral load monitoring for better management of infected PLHIV.
- ItemDrug resistance mutations against protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase inhibitors in people living with HIV-1 receiving boosted protease inhibitors in South Africa(Frontiers Media, 2020-03) Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Mikasi, Sello Given; Brado, Dominik; Cloete, Ruben; Singh, Kamlendra; Neogi, Ujjwal; Jacobs, Graeme Brendon; Pathology: Medical VirologyThe South African national combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) roll-out program started in 2006, with over 4.4 million people accessing treatment since it was first introduced. HIV-1 drug resistance can hamper the success of cART. This study determined the patterns of HIV-1 drug-resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in People Living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1). Receiving first (for children below 3 years of age) and second-line (for adults) cART regimens in South Africa. During 2017 and 2018, 110 patients plasma samples were selected, 96 samples including those of 17 children and infants were successfully analyzed. All patients were receiving a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) as part of their cART regimen. The viral sequences were analyzed for RAMs through genotypic resistance testing. We performed genotypic resistance testing (GRT) for Protease inhibitors (PIs), Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). Viral sequences were subtyped using REGAv3 and COMET. Based on the PR/RT sequences, HIV-1 subtypes were classified as 95 (99%) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) while one sample as 02_AG. Integrase sequencing was successful for 89 sequences, and all the sequences were classified as HIV-1C (99%, 88/89) except one sequence classified CRF02_AG, as observed in PR/RT. Of the 96 PR/RT sequences analyzed, M184V/I (52/96; 54%) had the most frequent RAM nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). The most frequent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) RAM was K103N/S (40/96, 42%). Protease inhibitor (PI) RAMs M46I and V82A were present in 12 (13%) of the sequences analyzed. Among the InSTI major RAM two (2.2%) sequences have Y143R and T97A mutations while one sample had T66I. The accessory RAM E157Q was identified in two (2.2%). The data indicates that the majority of the patients failed on bPIs didn’t have any mutation; therefore adherence could be major issue in these groups of individuals. We propose continued viral load monitoring for better management of infected PLHIV.
- ItemIncreased acquired protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations in minor HIV-1 quasispecies from infected patients suspected of failing on national second-line therapy in South Africa(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2019) Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Ambikan, Anoop T.; Gupta, Soham; Neogi, Ujjwal; Jacobs, Graeme BrendonBackground: HIV-1C has been shown to have a greater risk of virological failure and reduced susceptibility towards boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs), a component of second-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in South Africa. This study entailed an evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) among minor viral populations through high-throughput sequencing genotypic resistance testing (HTS-GRT) in patients on the South African national second-line cART regimen receiving bPIs. Methods: During 2017 and 2018, 67 patient samples were sequenced using high-throughput sequencing (HTS), of which 56 samples were included in the final analysis because the patient’s treatment regimen was available at the time of sampling. All patients were receiving bPIs as part of their cART. Viral RNA was extracted, and complete pol genes were amplified and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2500, followed by bioinformatics analysis to quantify the RAMs according to the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Results: Statistically significantly higher PI RAMs were observed in minor viral quasispecies (25%; 14/56) compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (9%; 5/56; p = 0.042) and integrase inhibitor RAM (4%; 2/56; p = 0.002). The majority of the drug resistance mutations in the minor viral quasispecies were observed in the V82A mutation (n = 13) in protease and K65R (n = 5), K103N (n = 7) and M184V (n = 5) in reverse transcriptase. Conclusions: HTS-GRT improved the identification of PI and reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) RAMs in second-line cART patients from South Africa compared to the conventional GRT with ≥20% used in Sanger-based sequencing. Several RTI RAMs, such as K65R, M184V or K103N and PI RAM V82A, were identified in < 20% of the population. Deep sequencing could be of greater value in detecting acquired resistance mutations early.
- ItemMultidisciplinary viral analyses in people living with HIV-1C and receiving second-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in South Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-12) Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Jacobs, Graeme Brendon; Neogi, Ujjwal; Kamalendra, Singh; Cloete, Ruben; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Pathology: Medical VirologyENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has grown since its first introduction into the South African public sector. cART has significantly reduced the mortality rate caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in both high- and low-to-middle-income countries. The development of drug resistance has challenged the outcome of cART. This has led to the introduction of Integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) as part of the first-line cART regimen. Due to their superior efficacy and high genetic barrier, this class of drugs was previously reserved as salvage therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports InSTIs as first-line regimen non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) particularly in regions where pre-treatment drug resistance to NNRTIs reaches 10%. Therefore, this study aimed to (i) to investigate the prevalence of InSTI mutations in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced PLHIV using genotypic assays, which included Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and molecular modelling; (ii) analysed Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) to identify transcription factor binding sites. Chapter 2: Ninety-one (n = 91) treatment-naïve patients were obtained before the start of antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. Furthermore, we included 314 South African patient sequences obtained from the Los Alamos National Library database (www.lanl.gov). The IN gene ~ 900 base pairs [bps] was amplified and sequenced using conventional DNA Sanger sequencing. Homology structure was generated using the cryoEM structure of HIV-1B IN intasome (PDB file 5U1C) using ‘Prime’ of Schrodinger Suit. Chapter 3: Ninety-six (n = 96) treatment-experienced patients receiving boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) as part of their cART treatment regimen were obtained for further analyses. We performed conventional DNA Sanger sequencing to analyse the complete pol gene (~3011bps) and sequences were analysed using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database to assess genotypic resistance associated mutations (RAMs). Chapter 4: Fifty-six (n = 56) treatment-experienced patients receiving boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) as part of their cART treatment regimen were obtained. We performed a high-throughput (HT) sequence analyses on the complete pol gene using Illumina HiSeq2500, followed by bioinformatics analysis to quantify the RAMs according to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Chapter 5 and 6: We performed in-silico analyses on diverse HIV-1 subtypes based on 8114 sequences. These included treatment naïve and downloaded sequences from the HIV Los Alamos National Library Database (www.lanl.gov). Homology derived molecular models of HIV-1 IN tetramers from different subtypes were generated using cryoEM structure of the HIV-1B IN intasome. Chapter 7: Fifty-six (n = 56) treatment-experienced patients receiving boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) as part of their cART treatment regimen were obtained. We performed Sanger sequencing to analyse the LTR gene (~ 474 bps) followed by bioinformatics analyses to identify transcription factor binding sites.The data indicates that in South Africa, the prevalence of RAMs against InSTIs is low and InSTIs can be used as a potential viable salvage therapy option and/or first-line regimen. Molecular modelling was done for IN structural analyses, which revealed how naturally occurring polymorphisms might affect structural stabilities, viral DNA binding and drug-binding propensity. This study represents a true baseline InSTI resistance rate as the treatment-naïve patients were obtained before the cART introduction. We propose GRT for people living with HIV (PLHIV) before treatment initiation and we recommend continued InSTIs drug resistance monitoring when introduced on a larger scale in South African.
- ItemNear full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from the early South African epidemic, detecting a BD unique recombinant form (URF) from a sample in 1985(Nature Research, 2019-04-17) Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Engelbrecht, Susan; Jacobs, Graeme BrendonENGLISH ABSTRACT: HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent subtype in South Africa. Although subtype B was previously detected in South Africa, there is limited sequence information available. We characterized near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from samples collected at the start of the South African HIV-1 epidemic, in the 1980s. Five samples were analysed by PCR amplification, Sanger DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The viral genomes were amplified in two overlapping fragments of 5.5 kb and 3.7 kb. The sequences were subtyped using REGA version 3.0, RIP version 3.0 and jpHMM. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were inferred with MEGA version 6. Four HIV-1 patient sequences were subtyped as pure HIV-1 subtype B. One sequence was characterized as a novel HIV-1 subtype B and D recombinant. The sequences clustered phylogenetically with other HIV-1 subtype B sequences from South Africa, Europe and the USA. We report the presence of an HIV-1 subtype B and D recombinant strain detected in the beginning of the epidemic. This indicates that viral recombination events were already happening in 1985, but could have been missed as sequence analyses were often limited to small genomic regions of HIV-1.
- ItemStructural comparison of diverse HIV-1 subtypes using molecular modelling and docking analyses of integrase inhibitors(MDPI, 2020-08-26) Isaacs, Darren; Mikasi, Sello Given; Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Ikomey, George Mondinde; Shityakov, Sergey; Cloete, Ruben; Jacobs, Graeme BrendonENGLISH ABSTRACT: The process of viral integration into the host genome is an essential step of the HIV-1 life cycle. The viral integrase (IN) enzyme catalyzes integration. IN is an ideal therapeutic enzyme targeted by several drugs; raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG), dolutegravir (DTG), and bictegravir (BIC) having been approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Due to high HIV-1 diversity, it is not well understood how specific naturally occurring polymorphisms (NOPs) in IN may affect the structure/function and binding affinity of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). We applied computational methods of molecular modelling and docking to analyze the effect of NOPs on the full-length IN structure and INSTI binding. We identified 13 NOPs within the Cameroonian-derived CRF02_AG IN sequences and further identified 17 NOPs within HIV-1C South African sequences. The NOPs in the IN structures did not show any differences in INSTI binding affinity. However, linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the Ki and EC50 values for DTG and BIC as strong inhibitors of HIV-1 IN subtypes. All INSTIs are clinically effective against diverse HIV-1 strains from INSTI treatment-naïve populations. This study supports the use of second-generation INSTIs such as DTG and BIC as part of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens, due to a stronger genetic barrier to the emergence of drug resistance.
- ItemWhat could "fair allocation" during the Covid-19 crisis possibly mean in Sub-Saharan Africa?(Wiley, 2020-06) Moodley, Keymanthri; Ravez, Laurent; Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel; Mwinga, Alwyn; Jaoko, Walter; Makindu, Darius; Behets, Frieda; Rennie, StuartThe Covid-19 pandemic has sparked rapid and voluminous production of bioethics commentary in popular media and academic publications. Many of the discussions are new twists on an old theme: how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, such as ventilators and intensive care unit beds. In this essay, we do not add another allocation scheme to the growing pile, partly out of appreciation that such schemes should be products of inclusive and transparent community engagement and partly out of recognition of their limited utility for physicians working in the field. Instead, we make the more modest claim that context matters when making such decisions and, more specifically, that recommendations from high-income countries about fair allocation during Covid-19 should not be cut and pasted into low-income settings. We offer a few examples of why seemingly universal, well-intentioned ethical recommendations could have adverse consequences if unreflectively applied in sub-Saharan Africa.