Browsing by Author "Nglazi, Mweete D."
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- ItemEpidemiology of lower respiratory infection and pneumonia in South Africa (1997 – 2015) : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Roomaney, Rifqah A.; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Awotiwon, Oluwatoyin F.; Dhansay, Ali; Groenewald, Pam; Joubert, Jane D.; Nglazi, Mweete D.; Nicol, Edward; Bradshaw, DebbieIntroduction: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and pneumonia are among the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children aged under 5 years, and these patterns are reflected in the South African population. Local epidemiological data for LRIs and pneumonia are required to inform the Second National Burden of Disease Study underway in South Africa. The aim of this systematic review is to identify published studies reporting the prevalence, incidence, case fatality, duration or severity of LRI and pneumonia in adults and children in South Africa. Methods and analysis: Electronic database searches will be conducted to obtain studies reporting on the prevalence, incidence, case fatality, duration and severity of LRI and pneumonia in South Africa between January 1997 and December 2015. Studies that are assessed to have moderate or low risk of bias will be included in a meta-analysis, if appropriate. Where meta-analysis is not possible, the articles will be described narratively. Subgroup analysis (eg, age groups) will also be conducted where enough information is available. Ethics and dissemination: This systematic review will only include published data with no linked patientlevel information; thus, no ethics approval is required. The findings will be used to calculate the burden of disease attributed to LRI and pneumonia in South Africa and will highlight the type of epidemiological data available in the country. The article will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication.
- ItemEpidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997 – 2015): a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Joubert, Jane D.; Stein, Dan J.; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A.; Muhwava, Lorrein S.; Bradshaw, DebbieENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. Methods and analysis: We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available.
- ItemThe impact of mass media interventions on tuberculosis awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2014-12) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Shey, Muki S.; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Strategies to curb the spread of TB must match the multifaceted nature of the epidemic. The use of mass media is one of the important strategies in communicating behavioural change in relation to TB prevention and the treatment. However, the benefits of this intervention are unclear. We, therefore, plan to conduct a systematic review on the effects of mass media interventions on TB awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation. Methods: and analysis We will preferably include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this systematic review. However, non-randomised studies will be included if there is an inadequate number of RCTs. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus and other databases, along with manual searches. Articles written (or translated) in English and French and published between 1 January 1980 and 31 October 2013 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be TB knowledge, attitudes and awareness, healthcare-seeking behaviour and service utilisation. The secondary outcomes will include stigma and discrimination against people with TB and the costs of the interventions. We will investigate clinical and statistical heterogeneity and pool studies judged to be clinically and statistically homogeneous. Relative risks will be calculated for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes, both with their corresponding 95% CIs. Ethics: and dissemination The systematic review will use data that is not linked to individuals. The review findings may have implications for clinical practice and future research, and will be disseminated electronically and in print through peer-reviewed publications.
- ItemMobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment : a systematic review(BioMed Central, 2013-12-02) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Hussey, Gregory D.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Background: Mobile phone text messaging (SMS) has the potential to promote adherence to tuberculosis treatment. This systematic review aims to synthesize current evidence on the effectiveness of SMS interventions in improving patients’ adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index), reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings, and selected websites for eligible studies available by 15 February 2013; regardless of language or publication status. Two authors independently screened selected eligible studies, and assessed risk of bias in included studies; resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Results: We identified four studies that compared the outcomes of the SMS intervention group with controls. Only one of the four studies was a randomized controlled trial. This was conducted in Argentina and the SMS intervention did not significantly improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment compared to self-administration of tuberculosis treatment (risk ratio [RR] 1.49, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.90 to 2.42). One of the non-randomized studies, conducted in South Africa, which compared SMS reminders to directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) reported similar rates of tuberculosis cure (62.35% vs. 66.4%) and treatment success (72.94% vs. 69.4%). A second study from South Africa, utilized SMS reminders when patients delayed in opening their pill bottles and reported increased tuberculosis cure (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.36) and smear conversion (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.42) rates compared to DOTS. In the third non-randomized study, conducted in Kenya, use of SMS reminders increased rates of clinic attendance on scheduled days compared to standard care (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.29). Using the GRADE approach, we rate the quality of the evidence as low, mainly because of the high risk of bias and heterogeneity of effects across studies. Conclusions: This systematic review indicates that there is a paucity of high-quality data on the effectiveness of SMS interventions for improving patients’ adherence to tuberculosis treatment. The low quality of the current evidence implies that further studies (in particular randomized trials) on the subject are needed. In the interim, if the intervention is implemented outside research settings an impact evaluation is warranted.
- ItemThe prevalence of type 2 diabetes in South Africa : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-06) Pheiffer, Carmen; Pillay-Van Wyk, Victoria; Joubert, Jane D.; Levitt, Naomi; Nglazi, Mweete D.; Bradshaw, DebbieIntroduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major source of morbidity and mortality in South Africa, spurred by increased urbanisation and unhealthy lifestyle factors. Local epidemiological data are required to inform health planning and policy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, collate and synthesise all studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes in South Africa. A secondary aim is to report the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose, conditions which are associated with an increased risk of progression to overt diabetes, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes. Methods and analysis Multiple databases will be searched for diabetes prevalence studies conducted in South Africa between 1997 and 2018. Two authors will independently select studies that meet the inclusion criteria, extract data and appraise studies using a risk of bias tool for prevalence studies. Studies with low or moderate risk of bias will be included. Sources of heterogeneity will be explored using subgroup analysis. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review does not require ethics clearance since published studies with non-identifiable data will be used. This review will provide best estimates to inform the Second National Burden of Disease study which can guide health and policy planning.