Browsing by Author "Mouton, C."
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- ItemAccelerated microbial degradation of nematicides in vineyard and orchard soils(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2014-03) Hugo, H. J.; Mouton, C.; Malan, Antoinette P.Accelerated microbial degradation (AMD) of organophosphate and carbamate nematicides is a phenomenon whereby biodegradation in the soil is increased, leading to a dramatically shortened persistence of nematicides. More intensified agriculture practices in South Africa in response to the future demand for food may lead to increased pest and disease pressure, which in turn will lead to more frequent pesticide application. The same principle applies to plant-parasitic nematode control practices, and the overuse and misuse will have a pronounced effect on the enhancement of AMD. With limited management options available, the responsible use of nematicides becomes more pertinent. Producers should be aware of the problems associated with multiple soil applications of organophosphates and carbamates against plant-parasitic nematodes. This article reviews factors contributing to the AMD of carbamate and organophosphate nematicides in soil and makes practical recommendations to avoid the occurrence of AMD in vineyard and orchards.
- ItemDifferentiation of South African potato cyst nematodes (PCN) by analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region(SA ePublications, 2006) Knoetze, R.; Malan, Antoinette P.; Mouton, C.Cysts from nematode-infested plots on eight potato farms in the Sandveld and Ceres regions of South Africa were analysed by means of rDNA-RFLP. The size of the PCR amplification products for all populations was typical for the genus Globodera. Restriction digestion of the amplified products with MspI and HinfI confirmed Globodera rostochiensisto be present in both the Sandveld and Ceres regions and Globodera pallidato be absent from South African potato cyst nematode populations. However, several populations from the Sandveld region showed no recognition of the HinfI restriction site and no digestion took place, indicating them to be a distinct Globodera species. Sequencing of the ITS1 region confirmed the presence of G. rostochiensis and an unknown Globodera species, and the absence of G. pallida in South Africa. Species-specific primers for the identification of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida were optimised.