Browsing by Author "Martinson, Neil"
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- ItemAfri-Can Forum 2(Biomed Central, 2016-07-12) Mukudu, Hillary; Martinson, Neil; Sartorius, Benn; Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Mokgatswana, Kgaugelo; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E.; Dugas, Marylene; Behanzin, Luc; Guedou, Fernand A.; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Alary, Michel; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Nakamanya, Sarah; Muhumuza, Richard; Nalukenge, Winfred; Seeley, Janet; Atujuna, Millicent; Wallace, Melissa; Brown, Ben; Bekker, Linda G.; Newman, Peter A.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Olivier, Abraham J.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Wilson, Douglas; Dietrich, Janan; Martinson, Neil; Mukudu, Hillary; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla; Morris, Lynn; Cianci, Gianguido; Dinh, Minh; Hope, Thomas; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Gray, Clive M.; Henrick, Bethany M.; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.; Henrick, Bethany M.; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Drannik, Anna G.; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.; Chanzu, Nadia; Mwanda, Walter; Oyugi, Julius; Anzala, Omu; Mbow, Moustapha; Jallow, Sabelle; Thiam, Moussa; Davis, Alberta; Diouf, Assane; Ndour, Cheikh T.; Seydi, Moussa; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Mboup, Souleymane; Goodier, Martin; Rilley, Eleanor; Jaye, Assan; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Omange, R. W.; Henrick, Bethany M.; Lester, Richard T.; Kimani, Joshua; Ball, T. B.; Plummer, Francis A.; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.; Behanzin, Luc; Guedou, Fernand A.; Geraldo, Nassirou; Mastetse, Ella G.; Sossa, Jerome C.; Zannou, Marcel D.; Alary, Michel; Osawe, Sophia; Okpokoro, Evaezi; Okolo, Felicia; Umaru, Stephen; Abimiku, Rebecca; Audu, Sam; Datong, Pam; Abimiku, Alashle; Nyange, Jacquelyn; Olenja, Joyce; Mutua, Gaudensia; Jaoko, Walter; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Farah, Bashir; Khaniri, Maureen; Anzala, Omu; Cockcroft, Anne; Tonkin, Kendra; Girish, Indu; Mhati, Puna; Cunningham, Ashley; Andersson, Neil; Farah, Bashir; Indangasi, Jackton; Jaoko, Walter; Mutua, Gaudensia; Khaniri, Maureen; Nyange, Jacquelyn; Anzala, Omu; Diphoko, Thabo; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Maiswe, Victoria; Iketleng, Thato; Maruapula, Dorcas; Bedi, Keabetswe; Moyo, Sikhulile; Musonda, Rosemary; Wainberg, Mark; Makhema, Joseph; Novitsky, Vladimir; Marlink, Richard; Essex, Max; Okoboi, Stephen; Ssali, Livingstone; Kalibala, Sam; Birungi, Josephine; Egessa, Aggrey; Wangisi, Jonathan; Okullu, Lyavala J.; Bakanda, Celestin; Obare, Francis; Boer, I. M. S.; Semvua, Hadija H.; Van den Boogaard, Jossy; Kiwango, Krisanta W.; Ngowi, Kennedy M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Kiwelu, Ireen; Muro, Eva; Kibiki, Gibson S.; Datiri, Ruth; Choji, Grace; Osawe, Sophia; Okpokoro, Evaezi; Okolo, Felicia; Umaru, Stephen; Abimiku, Rebecca; Datong, Pam; Abimiku, Alashle; Fomsgaard, A.; Karlsson, I.; Jensen, K. J; Jensen, S. S.; Leo-Hansen, C.; Jespersen, S.; Da Silva Te, D.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Da Silva, Z. J.; Janitzek, C. M.; Gerstoft, J.; Kronborg, G.; Okpokoro, Evaezi; Osawe, Sophia; Daitiri, Ruth; Choji, Grace; Umaru, Stephen; Okolo, Felicia; Datong, Pam; Emily, Nyariki; Joyce, Olenja; Robert, Lorway R.; Anzala, Anzala; Viljoen, Katie; Wendoh, Jerome; Kidzeru, Elvis; Karaoz, Ulas; Brodie, Eoin; Botha, Gerrit; Mulder, Nicola; Gray, Clive; Cameron, William; Stintzi, Alain; Jaspan, Heather; Levett, Paul N.; Alexander, David; Gulzar, Naveed; Grewal, Prabvir S.; Poon, Art F Y.; Brumme, Zabrina; Harrigan, P. R.; Brooks, James I.; Sandstrom, Paul A.; Calvez, Stryker; Sanche, Stephen E.; Scott, Jamie K.; Swartz, Leslie; Kagee, Ashraf; Lesch, Anthea; Kafaar, Zuhayr; De Wet, Anneliese; Okpokoro, Evaezi; Osawe, Sophia; Daitiri, Ruth; Choji, Grace; Umaru, Stephen; Okolo, Felicia; Datong, Pam; Abimiku, Alashle; Dietrich, Janan; Smith, Tricia; Cotton, Laura; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Van der Watt, Martin; Miller, Cari L.; Gray, Glenda; Smit, Jenni; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Ndungu, Thumbi; Brockman, Mark; Kaida, Angela; Akolo, Maureen; Kimani, Joshua; Gelmon, Larry; Chitwa, Michael; Osero, Justus; Cockcroft, Anne; Marokoane, Nobantu; Kgakole, Leagajang; Maswabi, Boikhutso; Mpofu, Neo; Ansari, Umaira; Andersson, Neil; Nakinobe, Elizabeth; Miiro, George M.; Zalwango, Flavia; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Kaleebu, Potiano; Semwanga, John R.; Nyanzi, Emily; Musoke, Saidat N.; Nakinobe, Elizabeth; Miiro, George; Mbidde, Edward K.; Lutalo, Tom; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Handema, Ray; Chianzu, Graham P.; Thiam, Moussa; Diagne-Gueye, Diabou; Ndiaye, Mame K.; Mbow, Moustapha; Ndiaye, Birahim P.; Traore, Ibrahima; Dia, Mamadou C.; Thomas, Gilleh; Tour-Kane, Coumba; Mboup, Souleymane; Jaye, Assan; Nyanzi, Emily; Mbidde, Edward K.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mpendo, Juliet; Kimani, Joshua; Birungi, Josephine; Muyindike, Winnie; Kambugu, Andrew; Sebastian, Hachizovu; Ray, Handema; Mike, Chaponda; Bertin, Kabuya J.; Modest, Mulenga; Thiam, Moussa; Janha, Omar; Davis, Alberta; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Nwakanma, Davis C.; Mboup, Souleymane; Jaye, Assan; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo L.; Esbjornsson, Joakim; Medina, Candida; Te, David Da Silva; Correira, Faustino G.; Laursen, Alex L.; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Andreas; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Wejse, Christian; Dieye, Siry; Sarr, Moussa; Sy, Haby; Mbodj, Helene D.; Ndiaye, Marianne; Ndiaye, Amy; Moussa, Seydi; Jaye, Assan; Mboup, Souleymane; Nyombi, Balthazar M.; Shao, Elichilia R.; Chilumba, Innocent B.; Moyo, Sikhulile; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Musonda, Rosemary; Datong, Pam; Inyang, Bucky; Osawe, Sophia; Izang, Abel; Cole, Chundung; Okolo, Felicia; Cameron, Bill; Rosenthal, Kenneth; Gray, Clive; Jaspan, Heather; Seraise, Boitumelo; Andrea-Marobela, Kerstin; Moyo, Sikhulile; Musonda, Rosemary; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Gaseitsiwe, SimaniENGLISH ABSTRACT: We are pleased to present peer reviewed forum proceedings of the 2nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVIfunded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams Forum objectives ∙GHRI-funded capacity building and HIV prevention research teams presented highlights of achievements ∙Teams discussed how to jointly build on achievements for sustainability ∙Provided an opportunity for inter-team collaboration, synchronize best approach to capacity building, mentoring of new researchers and building leadership ∙Provided opportunities for informal discussions and networking among the teams. ∙Teams learnt about recent advances in the area of African regulatory and ethics review process ∙The forum proceedings was a special supplement in an openaccess journal was produced
- ItemComparing rates of mycobacterial clearance in sputum smear-negative and smear-positive adults living with HIV(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-05-22) Machowski, Edith E.; Letutu, Matebogo; Lebina, Limakatso; Waja, Ziyaad; Msandiwa, Reginah; Milovanovic, Minja; Gordhan, Bhavna G.; Otwombe, Kennedy; Friedrich, Sven O.; Chaisson, Richard; Diacon, Andreas H.; Kana, Bavesh; Martinson, NeilBackground: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLH) frequently presents as sputum smearnegative. However, clinical trials of TB in adults often use smear-positive individuals to ensure measurable bacterial responses following initiation of treatment, thereby excluding HIV-infected patients from trials. Methods: In this prospective case cohort study, 118 HIV-seropositive TB patients were assessed prior to initiation of standard four-drug TB therapy and at several time points through 35 days. Sputum bacillary load, as a marker of treatment response, was determined serially by: smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, liquid culture, and colony counts on agar medium. Results: By all four measures, patients who were baseline smear-positive had higher bacterial loads than those presenting as smear-negative, until day 35. However, most smear-negative PLH had significant bacillary load at enrolment and their mycobacteria were cleared more rapidly than smear-positive patients. Smear-negative patients’ decline in bacillary load, determined by colony counts, was linear to day 7 suggesting measurable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the decrease in bacterial counts was comparable to smear-positive individuals. Increasing cycle threshold values (Ct) on the Xpert assay in smear-positive patients to day 14 implied decreasing bacterial load. Conclusion: Our data suggest that smear-negative PLH can be included in clinical trials of novel treatment regimens as they contain sufficient viable bacteria, but allowances for late exclusions would have to be made in sample size estimations. We also show that increases in Ct in smear-positive patients to day 14 reflect treatment responses and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay could be used as biomarker for early treatment response.
- ItemIncidence of TB and HIV in prospectively followed household contacts of TB index patients in South Africa(PLoS, 2014-04) Van Schalkwyk, Cari; Variava, Ebrahim; Shapiro, Adrienne E.; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Masonoke, Katlego; Lebina, Limakatso; Welte, Alex; Martinson, NeilObjective: To report the incidence rates of TB and HIV in household contacts of index patients diagnosed with TB. Design: A prospective cohort study in the Matlosana sub-district of North West Province, South Africa. Methods: Contacts of index TB patients received TB and HIV testing after counseling at their first household visit and were then followed up a year later, in 2010. TB or HIV diagnoses that occurred during the period were determined. Results: For 2,377 household contacts, the overall observed TB incidence rate was 1.3 per 100 person years (95% CI 0.9–1.9/100py) and TB incidence for individuals who were HIV-infected and HIV seronegative at baseline was 5.4/100py (95% CI 2.9–9.0/100py) and 0.7/100py (95% CI 0.3–1.4/100py), respectively. The overall HIV incidence rate was 2.2/100py (95% CI 1.3–8.4/100py). Conclusions: In the year following a household case finding visit when household contacts were tested for TB and HIV, the incidence rate of both active TB and HIV infection was found to be extremely high. Clearly, implementing proven strategies to prevent HIV acquisition and preventing TB transmission and progression to disease remains a priority in settings such as South Africa.
- ItemLevofloxacin versus placebo for the prevention of tuberculosis disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis : study protocol for a phase III cluster randomised controlled trial (TB-CHAMP)(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018-12-20) Seddon, James A.; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J.; Purchase, Susan E.; Osman, Muhammad; Demers, Anne-Marie; Hoddinott, Graeme; Crook, Angela M.; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Thomason, Margaret J.; Turkova, Anna; Gibb, Diana M.; Fairlie, Lee; Martinson, Neil; Schaaf, H. Simon; Hesseling, Anneke C.Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) presents a challenge for global TB control. Treating individuals with MDR-TB infection to prevent progression to disease could be an effective public health strategy. Young children are at high risk of developing TB disease following infection and are commonly infected by an adult in their household. Identifying young children with household exposure to MDR-TB and providing them with MDR-TB preventive therapy could reduce the risk of disease progression. To date, no trials of MDR-TB preventive therapy have been completed and World Health Organization guidelines suggest close observation with no active treatment. Methods: The tuberculosis child multidrug-resistant preventive therapy (TB-CHAMP) trial is a phase III cluster randomised placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of levofloxacin in young child contacts of MDR-TB cases. The trial is taking place at three sites in South Africa where adults with MDR-TB are identified. If a child aged < 5 years lives in their household, we assess the adult index case, screen all household members for TB disease and evaluate any child aged < 5 years for trial eligibility. Eligible children are randomised by household to receive daily levofloxacin (15–20 mg/kg) or matching placebo for six months. Children are closely monitored for disease development, drug tolerability and adverse events. The primary endpoint is incident TB disease or TB death by one year after recruitment. We will enrol 1556 children from approximately 778 households with an average of two eligible children per household. Recruitment will run for 18–24 months with all children followed for 18 months after treatment. Qualitative and health economic evaluations are embedded in the trial. Discussion: If the TB-CHAMP trial demonstrates that levofloxacin is effective in preventing TB disease in young children who have been exposed to MDR-TB and that it is safe, well tolerated, acceptable and cost-effective, we would expect that that this intervention would rapidly transfer into policy.
- ItemPhase 2b controlled trial of M72/AS01E vaccine to prevent tuberculosis(Massachusetts Medical Society, 2018-10-25) Van der Meeren, Olivier; Hatherill, Mark; Nduba, Videlis; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Muyoyeta, Monde; Van Brakel, Elana; Ayles, Helen M.; Henostroza, German; Thienemann, Friedrich; Scriba, Thomas J.; Diacon, Andreas; Blatner, Gretta L.; Demoitie, Marie-Ange; Tameris, Michele; Malahleha, Mookho; Innes, James C.; Hellstrom, Elizabeth; Martinson, Neil; Singh, Tina; Akite, Elaine J.; Khatoon Azam, Aisha; Bollaerts, Anne; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Evans, Thomas G.; Gillard, Paul; Tait, Dereck R.BACKGROUND: A vaccine to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis is needed. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial of the M72/AS01E tuberculosis vaccine in Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative adults 18 to 50 years of age with latent M. tuberculosis infection (by interferon-γ release assay) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive two doses of either M72/AS01E or placebo intramuscularly 1 month apart. Most participants had previously received the bacille Calmette–Guérin vaccine. We assessed the safety of M72/AS01E and its efficacy against progression to bacteriologically confirmed active pulmonary tuberculosis disease. Clinical suspicion of tuberculosis was confirmed with sputum by means of a polymerase-chain-reaction test, mycobacterial culture, or both. RESULTS: We report the primary analysis (conducted after a mean of 2.3 years of follow-up) of the ongoing trial. A total of 1786 participants received M72/AS01E and 1787 received placebo, and 1623 and 1660 participants in the respective groups were included in the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort. A total of 10 participants in the M72/AS01E group met the primary case definition (bacteriologically confirmed active pulmonary tuberculosis, with confirmation before treatment), as compared with 22 participants in the placebo group (incidence, 0.3 cases vs. 0.6 cases per 100 person-years). The vaccine efficacy was 54.0% (90% confidence interval [CI], 13.9 to 75.4; 95% CI, 2.9 to 78.2; P=0.04). Results for the total vaccinated efficacy cohort were similar (vaccine efficacy, 57.0%; 90% CI, 19.9 to 76.9; 95% CI, 9.7 to 79.5; P=0.03). There were more unsolicited reports of adverse events in the M72/AS01E group (67.4%) than in the placebo group (45.4%) within 30 days after injection, with the difference attributed mainly to injection-site reactions and influenza-like symptoms. Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: M72/AS01E provided 54.0% protection for M. tuberculosis–infected adults against active pulmonary tuberculosis disease, without evident safety concerns. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and Aeras; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01755598. opens in new tab.)