Browsing by Author "Mahembe, Bright"
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- ItemA confirmatory factor analytic study of a self-leadership measure in South Africa(AOSIS Publishing, 2013-06) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.; De Kock, Francois S.Orientation: Self-leadership is considered to be essential for effective individual functioning in occupational and academic contexts. The revised self-leadership questionnaire (RSLQ) is widely utilised for measuring self-leadership, but its psychometric properties have not been established on a South African sample. By implication, important questions also exist about the theoretical structure of self-leadership in the South African context. Research purpose: The research aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and factorial validity of the revised self-leadership questionnaire on a South African sample. In doing so, the results of the research would also provide valuable insights into the latent factor structure of the self-leadership construct. Motivation for the study: On a practical level, the research sought internal validity evidence for the use of the RSLQ in the South African context. On a theoretical level, questions remain about the best conceptual representation of self-leadership as a construct. Research design, approach and method: The revised self-leadership questionnaire was administered to a non-probability sample of 375 South African young adults. The first and second-order factor structure underlying contemporary models of self-leadership using confirmatory factor analytic techniques was tested. Main findings: Results showed that the RSLQ measured self-leadership with suitable reliability and internal validity. All eight subscales had high internal consistency coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the first and second-order models conclusively demonstrated good factorial validity. Practical/managerial implications: The study found that the RSLQ has good measurement properties for a South African context. Academics, practitioners and managers are urged to use the measure in its present form for applications such as leadership development and promoting self-management. Contribution/value-addition: The study extends the body of psychometric evidence supporting the use of the revised self-leadership questionnaire in the South African milieu. The researchers have further indicated that self-leadership can be represented by a hierarchical latent factor structure, where a general factor drives more specific dimensions of self-leadership.
- ItemThe development and empirical evaluation of an extended learning potential structural model(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Mahembe, Bright; Theron, C. C.; Malan, D. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In South Africa, selection from a diverse population poses a formidable challenge. The challenge lies in subgroup difference in the performance criterion. Protected group members perform systematically lower on the criterion due to systematic, group-related differences in learning and job competency potential latent variables required to succeed in learning and on the job. These subgroup differences are attributable to the unequal development and distribution of intellectual capital across racial-ethnic subgroups due to systemic historical disadvantagement. This scenario has made it difficult for organisations in South Africa to meet equity targets when selecting applicants from a diverse group representative of the South African population, while at the same time maintaining production and efficiency targets. Therefore there is an urgent need for affirmative development. Ensuring that those admitted to affirmative development interventions successfully develop the job competency potential and job competencies required to succeed on the job requires that the appropriate people are selected into these interventions. Selection into affirmative development opportunities represents an attempt to improve the level of Learning performance during evaluation of learners admitted to affirmative development opportunities. A valid understanding of the identity of the determinants of learning performance in conjunction with a valid understanding of how they combine to determine the level of learning performance achieved should allow the valid prediction of Learning performance during evaluation. The primary objective of the present study was to integrate and elaborate the De Goede (2007) and the Burger (2012) learning potential models in a manner that circumvents the problems and shortcomings of these models by developing an extended explanatory learning performance structural model that explicates additional cognitive and non-cognitive learning competency potential latent variables that affect learning performance and that describes the manner in which these latent variables combine to affect learning performance. A total of 213 participants took part in the study. The sample was predominantly made up of students from previously disadvantaged groups on the extended degree programme of a university in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The proposed De Goede – Burger – Mahembe Learning Potential Structural Model was tested via structural equation modeling after performing item and dimensional analyses. Item and dimensional analyses were performed to identify poor items and ensure uni-dimensionality. Uni-dimensionality is a requirement for item parcel creation. Item parcels were used due to sample size restrictions. The fit of the measurement and structural models can generally be regarded as reasonable and both models showed close fit. Significant relationships were found between: Information processing capacity and Learning Performance during evaluation; Self-leadership and Motivation to learn; Motivation to learn and Time-engaged-on-task; Self efficacy and Self-leadership; Knowledge about cognition and Regulation of cognition; Regulation of cognition and Time-cognitively-engaged; Learning goal orientation and Motivation to learn; Openness to experience and Learning goal orientation. Support was not found for the relationships between Conscientiousness and Time-cognitively-engaged, as well as between Time-cognitively-engaged and Learning performance. The hypothesised moderating effect of Prior learning on the relationship between Abstract reasoning capacity and Learning performance during evaluation was not supported. The statistical power of the test of close fit for the comprehensive LISREL model was examined. The discriminant validity of the item parcels were ascertained. The limitations of the research and suggestions for future studies have been highlighted. The results of the present study provide some important insights for educators and training and development specialists on how to identify potential students and talent for affirmative development in organisations in South Africa.
- ItemEffect of ethical leadership and climate on effectiveness(AOSIS Publishing, 2017) Engelbrecht, Amos S.; Wolmarans, Janneke; Mahembe, BrightOrientation: The increasing prevalence of theft, sabotage and other deviant behaviours in the workplace has disastrous effects for organisations, such as lowered effectiveness, escalated costs and the organisation’s declining reputation. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to design and investigate the relationships among perceived leader effectiveness, ethical climate and ethical leadership. A further objective of the investigation was to validate a conceptual model clarifying the structural associations among the latent constructs in the South African corporate domain. Motivation for the study: A successful leader is both an ethical and an effective leader. An organisation’s leadership is seen as the most critical element in establishing and maintaining an ethical climate in organisations. Research design, approach and method: A convenient and multi-cultural sample comprised of 224 employees from various organisations in South Africa. The structure and content of the variables were analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), beside item analysis. Main findings: Satisfactory reliability was found for all the measurement scales. The results of CFA demonstrated acceptable fit with the data for the refined measurement and structural models. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated positive relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate and leader effectiveness. Practical implications: Organisational leaders should take full responsibility for cultivating ethics through ethical leader behaviour and an ethical climate. By reinforcing these aspects, perceived leader effectiveness can be advanced, which will ultimately decrease corruption and other forms of counterproductive behaviour in South African organisations. Contribution: The study provides further theoretical and empirical evidence that leadership effectiveness can be realised through instilling an ethical organisational climate in which ethical leadership is exhibited and encouraged.
- ItemThe influence of ethical leadership on trust and work engagement : an exploratory study(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-11-26) Engelbrecht, Amos S.; Heine, Gardielle; Mahembe, BrightOrientation: Work engagement is increasingly becoming an important outcome for organisational success. A trusting and ethical relationship between leaders and followers is likely to positively contribute to the work engagement of employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and trust in the leader and the effect these constructs have on the work engagement of employees. Motivation for the study: The study on the role of ethical leadership practices on employee engagement was motivated by the need to create an engaged workforce and a trusting work environment. Research approach, design and method: Data was collected using an electronic web-based questionnaire comprising three scales, namely the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES),Leader Trust Scale (LTS) and the Leadership of Ethics Scale (LES). In total, 204 completed questionnaires were returned. Data was analysed by means of item and confirmatory factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling (SEM). Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for all the measurement scales used. The results from the structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated positive relationships between trust in the leader and work engagement, between ethical leadership and work engagement and between ethical leadership and trust in the leader. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the role played by ethical leadership behaviour of managers in promoting work engagement through the creation of employee relationships anchored on trust. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further by identifying other variables that influence work engagement. Contribution/value-add: Organisations today still face the challenge of developing an effective strategy for achieving work engagement. The ethical leadership style of managers is likely to create an ethical and trusting work climate conducive to the work engagement of employees.This is likely to enhance productivity as well as employee creativity and innovation.
- ItemA preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-09) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained. Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment offer some important insights into the factor structure of the cultural intelligence construct. Motivation for the study: The current study sought to provide some practical validity confirmation of the CQS for the effective management of cultural diversity in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: The CQS was administered on a non-probability sample of 229 young adults in South Africa. Item analysis was performed to ascertain reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test the unidimensionality of CQS subscales. The first-order and second-order factor structures underlying contemporary models of cultural intelligence were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Main findings: Results indicated that the CQS is a reliable and valid measure of cultural intelligence as evidenced by the high internal consistency coefficients in all the subscales. Good construct validity for both the first-order and second-order models was obtained via confirmatory factor analysis. Practical/managerial implications: The study finds good measurement properties of the CQS in a South African context. The CQS can be confidently used for applications such as selecting, training and developing a more culturally competent workforce. Contribution: The study extends the body of knowledge on the reliability and construct validity of the CQS in the South African milieu. It further indicates that cultural intelligence can be represented by a general cultural intelligence factor that drives more specific dimensions of cultural intelligence.
- ItemThe relationship between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness(AOSIS Publishing, 2013-04) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.Orientation: Value-based leadership practices play a critical role in teamwork in highperformance organisations. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness. Motivation for the study: The increased reliance on teams for production calls for an analysis of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in enhancing team effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: A non-probability and multicultural sample consisting of 202 primary and secondary school teachers was drawn from 32 schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found and uni-dimensionality of the subscales was demonstrated through exploratory factor analyses. Good fit with the data was found for the measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling showed a reasonable fit for the structural model. Positive relationships were found amongst servant leadership, team effectiveness and affective team commitment. Standard multiple regression analysis showed that affective team commitment moderated the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the central role played by servant leadership and affective team commitment in team performance. Servant leadership fosters team effectiveness if employees feel committed to their work team. Contribution/value-add: The servant leadership style alone may not be a sufficient condition for team effectiveness; other variables, such as affective team commitment, also play a role. The study suggested specific variables that may also combine with leadership to positively influence team effectiveness.
- ItemThe relationship between servant leadership, team commitment, team citizenship behaviour and team effectiveness : an exploratory study(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-03) Mahembe, Bright; Dannhauser, Zani; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The work force has evolved immensely over the last decade. In a quest to remain competitive in the provision of consumer goods and services at the lowest possible economic cost, organisations have been compelled to adopt and adapt to the winds of change that have literally taken centre stage in the global market. The increased use of teams as production vehicles in today‟s workplace is one of the notable developments that deserve and justify further investigation. A study of the literature on teams revealed that leadership plays a crucial role in a team‟s dynamics, its survival and ultimate success. Therefore the overarching aim of the present study was to determine the manner in which leadership, specifically servant leadership, affects team effectiveness. In an attempt to answer this question, an explanatory structural model that purports to explicate the manner in which leadership affects team effectiveness was subsequently developed and tested. The study was conducted using primary and secondary school teachers from schools in and around Stellenbosch, in the Western Cape (South Africa). Each school was regarded as a team. Out of the 400 questionnaires distributed to the members of the teams, 201 (n=201) completed questionnaires were received comprising 29 teams. The respondents who participated in the study completed four questionnaires – joined together in one composite questionnaire. The four questionnaires constituting the composite questionnaire were: the rater version of the Servant Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ) of Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) - an SLQ self-report version also exists; the Team Commitment Survey of Bennett (1997); the slightly modified version of the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS) developed by Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1994) and the Team Effectiveness Questionnaire (TEQ) developed by Larson and LaFasto (1989). Item analyses were performed on each of the subscales using SPSS version 17. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the measurement model. However, some of the subscales, specifically for team citizenship behaviour and team commitment appeared to be problematic. The proposed model was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) via LISREL version 8.54. Overall, it was found that both the measurement and structural model fitted the data reasonably well. From the results obtained in this study it can be concluded that there is a very weak negative relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness, while there is a significant positive relationships between servant leadership and team commitment, team commitment and team citizenship behaviour, and team commitment and team effectiveness. Team citizenship behaviour has a slightly strong inverse effect on team effectiveness. Furthermore, team commitment has been found to be a strong moderator in the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness. With the unique combined variables included in this study, the study can be seen as making a contribution to the existing theory and literature by explicating the findings with regard to the interrelationships between servant leadership, team commitment, team citizenship behaviour, and team effectiveness. However, referring back to the literature, this study was an attempt to help further some of these “emerging” organisational behaviour constructs. It should therefore be seen as investigative in nature and much more follow-up research in this domain is deemed necessary. This study stated its limitations but also made recommendations for possible future research avenues to be explored.
- ItemA study to confirm the reliability and construct validity of an organisational citizenship behaviour measure on a South African sample(AOSIS Publishing, 2015-10) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.; Chinyamurindi, Willie; Kandekande, Linda R.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Orientation: Organisational citizenship behaviour, or extra-role behaviours, are essential outcomes for the health functioning of organisations. Research purpose: The primary goal of the study was to validate the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS) developed by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: Organisational citizenship behaviour is one of the important workplace outcomes. A psychometrically sound instrument is therefore required. Research design, approach and method: The sample consisted of 503 employees from the educational sector in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. The OCBS was used to measure organisational citizenship behaviour. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for the OCBS sub-scales. The first and second-order measurement models of the OCBS showed good fit. A competing one-factor model did not show good model fit. In terms of discriminant validity four of the five subdimensions correlated highly. Practical/managerial implications: Although the OCBS demonstrated some sound reliability coefficients and reasonable construct validity, the discriminant validity of four of the subscales raise some questions which future studies should confirm. The use of the instrument should help to continue to measure the much-needed extra-role behaviours that mirror an employee’s interest in the success of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the requirements of the Employment Equity Act (No. 55 of 1998) and the Amended Employment Equity Act of South Africa (Republic of South Africa, 1998; 2014). This promotes the use of reliable and valid instruments in South Africa by confirming the psychometric properties of the OCBS.