Browsing by Author "Lategan, E. L."
Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
Results Per Page
- ItemAn assessment of winery wastewater diluted for irrigation of grapevines in the Breede River Valley with respect to water quality and nutrient load(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2015) Howell, C. L.; Myburgh, P. A.; Lategan, E. L.; Hoffman, J. E.Possible re-use of winery wastewater for irrigation was investigated in a field trial with micro-sprinklerirrigated Cabernet Sauvignon/99 Richter in the Breede River Valley region of South Africa. Irrigation with winery wastewater diluted to 100, 250, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500 and 3 000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively, was compared to irrigation with raw river water. Since the pH was lower than 6, the diluted wastewater could cause nutrient toxicity. The diluted winery wastewater did not pose any salinity hazard, as the electrical conductivity was well below 2 dS/m. For the given range of dilutions, the sodium adsorption ratio never exceeded 10, which indicates that the water posed no sodicity hazard. Sodium and Cl- never exceeded 115 and 150 mg/L, the respective upper thresholds for grapevines. With the exception of N, levels of H2 PO4 - , K+ , Na+ , Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 - , SO4 2- and B3+ in the diluted wastewater increased with a decrease in dilution level. The N load in diluted winery wastewater appeared to be completely inadequate to supply the grapevine’s requirements. In contrast, the P load in the winery wastewater diluted to 2 500 mg/L COD and higher would supply more than adequate P if the grape yield amounts to 10 t/ha. Likewise, the dilution of winery wastewater to 250 mg/L COD and higher would supply more than adequate K+ if the grape yield amounts to 10 t/ha. However, K+ applied via the wastewater will only be beneficial if it is not leached from the root zone during winter.
- ItemEffect of irrigation using diluted winery wastewater on the chemical status of a sandy alluvial soil, with particular reference to potassium and sodium(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Howell, C. L.; Myburgh, P. A.; Lategan, E. L.; Hoffman, J. E.The re-use of winery wastewater for irrigation was investigated in a field trial with micro-sprinklerirrigated Cabernet Sauvignon/99 Richter in the Breede River Valley region of South Africa. Irrigation with winery wastewater diluted with river water to 100, 250, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500 and 3 000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) was compared to irrigation with river water. No trends were found in soil pH(KCl) and electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe ) that were related to the different levels of dilution. However, ECe was considerably higher after the application of diluted winery wastewater irrigations compared to ECe at bud break. This suggests an accumulation of salts from the diluted winery wastewater. Under the prevailing conditions, soil K+ and Na+ increased with a decrease in the dilution of the winery wastewater. Increases in K+ could have a negative impact on wine colour stability should potassium be taken up by the grapevine in sufficient quantities, particularly if soil K+ accumulates to such an extent that it is luxuriously absorbed by grapevines. There were no consistent trends with regard to soil organic C, which indicates that there was too little organic material in the wastewater to have had a positive effect on soil fertility. Furthermore, organic material in the wastewater probably oxidised when the soil was aerated between irrigations. Although irrigation with diluted winery wastewater had almost no other effects, element accumulation, particularly with respect to K+ and Na+, might be more prominent in heavier soils or in regions with low winter rainfall.
- ItemEffect of irrigation using diluted winery wastewater on vitis vinifera l. cv. cabernet sauvignon in a sandy alluvial soil in the Breede River Valley – vegetative growth, yield and wine quality(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2016-09) Howell, C. L.; Myburgh, P. A.; Lategan, E. L.; Schoeman, C.; Hoffman, J. E.The re-use of winery wastewater for irrigation was investigated in a field trial with micro-sprinklerirrigated Cabernet Sauvignon/99Richter in the Breede River Valley region of South Africa. Irrigation with winery wastewater diluted with river water to 100, 250, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500 and 3 000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) was compared to irrigation with river water. Under the prevailing conditions, plant water status did not respond to irrigation using diluted winery wastewater. Leaf and shoot element contents did not respond consistently to irrigation using diluted winery wastewater. There were no differences in vegetative growth or yield or juice characteristics, with the exception of juice pH. Consequently, water use and water status of the grapevines also were not affected. The results indicate that a summer interception crop may increase the evapotranspiration of vineyards substantially. The irrigation of grapevines using diluted winery wastewater did not have detrimental effects on wine colour and sensory wine characteristics, and the grapevines did not respond to the COD level per se. This indicates that sufficient aeration occurred between irrigations, which allowed organic carbon breakdown. The low salinity and sodicity levels in the diluted winery wastewater could be a further explanation of why the grapevines did not respond to the wastewater irrigation. In heavier soils, regions with lower winter rainfall, situations where the winery wastewater contains more potassium or where no interception crop is cultivated during summer, grapevine responses may be more pronounced.
- ItemThe effect of rumen inert fat supplementation and protein degradability in starter and finishing diets on veal calf performance(South African Society for Animal Science, 2003) Cruywagen, C. W.; Lategan, E. L.; Hoffman, L. C.Thirty six Holstein bull calves were divided into six groups to determine the effect of protein degradability and rumen inert fat supplementation in starter and finishing diets on nutrient digestibility and veal production. Calves received low (LD) or high (HD) degradable protein diets, with or without rumen inert fat supplementation. Two commercial fat sources were used, Morlac (mlc) and Golden Flake (gf), included in the experimental diets at 2.5% of dry matter (DM). A commercial milk replacer was fed to all calves at 4 L/day for 42 days, followed by 2 L/day until weaning at 49 days of age. Starter diets were offered ad lib. from day 14 to 10 weeks of age and finishing diets ad lib. from 11 to 20 weeks of age. All calves were slaughtered at 20 weeks to determine carcass weight and dressing percentage. There were no significant differences in body weight gain or dry matter intake over the entire 20 week period. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved when fat was supplemented to LD, but not to HD diets. The FCR (DM intake/kg gain) of LD, HD, LDmlc, HDmlc, LDgf and HDgf diets was 3.45, 3.44, 3.07, 3.81, 3.02 and 3.43, respectively. All 36 calves were used in a digestibility trial during week 18 of the study, using chromium oxide as a marker. Apparent digestibility values (%) for LD, HD, LDmlc, HDmlc, LDgf and HDgf, respectively, were 61.7, 65.9, 75.4, 69.0, 75.5 and 67.2 for DM, 61.4, 61.6, 71.3, 68.2, 75.4 and 66.1 for crude protein and 58.6, 66.5, 76.0, 70.9, 78.4 and 70.8 for fat. Dry matter and fat digestibilities were significantly higher when fat was added to LD diets, but not to HD diets. The CP digestibility was significantly higher when fat was added to either the LD or the HD diets. It was concluded that rumen inert fat supplementation to calf diets appears to improve feed conversion ratio and DM and fat digestibilities, but only when added to low degradable protein diets and only after 10 weeks of age. Crude protein digestibility appears to improve with fat supplementation to either high or low degradable protein diets.
- ItemSeasonal variation in composition of winery wastewater in the Breede River Valley with respect to classical water quality parameters(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2016-10) Howell, C. L.; Myburgh, P. A.; Lategan, E. L.; Hoffman, J. E.The annual wastewater quality dynamics of a winery from which wastewater was sourced for a field experiment investigating the dilution of winery wastewater for vineyard irrigation were determined. Annual mean monthly pH ranged from 4.2 to 6.8 and was lower during grape harvest than in winter. Electrical conductivity (EC) increased from the start of harvest (February) and reached a maximum in May, followed by a decline to a minimum in August. The increase in EC probably originated from cleaning agents used in the winery, as well as K+ in the grape lees and spillage from the grape fermentation process. With the exception of August, EC exceeded the critical value of 0.75 dS/m, which is the salinity threshold for water used for grapevine irrigation. The mean monthly chemical oxygen demand (COD) level increased from January and was highest at peak harvest (March). The K+ and Na+ levels in the winery wastewater increased from February to May. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) ranged from 2.4 to 9.0 and increased from January to June. Although COD concentration in winery wastewater is the preferred indicator of water quality for the South African wine industry, it did not provide a reliable indication of suitability for irrigation. However, EC was strongly determined by the K+ concentration. This was to be expected, since K+ is usually the most abundant cation in winery wastewater. Therefore, EC would be a more reliable indicator of winery wastewater quality than COD concentration, particularly with regard to the concentrations of cations such as K+ and Na+.