Browsing by Author "Kalula, Asha Saidi"
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- ItemModelling the dynamics of methamphetamine abuse in the Western Cape(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Kalula, Asha Saidi; Nyabadza, Farai; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Mathematical Sciences.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production and abuse of methamphetamine has increased dramatically in South Africa, especially in the Western Cape province. A typical methamphetamine use cycle consists of concealed use after initiation, addiction, treatment and recovery. The model by Nyabadza and Musekwa in , is extended to include a core group, fast and slow progression to addiction. The model is analysed analytically and numerically using mass action incidence function and non-linear incidence function. The analysis of the model with mass action incidence is presented in terms of the methamphetamine epidemic threshold R0. The analysis shows that the drug free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable when R0 < 1 and drug persistent equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable when R0 > 1. The model also exhibits a backward bifurcation. Sensitivity analysis of the model on R0 is performed. The most sensitive parameters are transmission rate and recruitment rate of individuals into the core group. The non-linear incidence incorporates innovators and behaviour change. Analytically, the model is analysed in the absence of behaviour change. With behaviour change two cases were considered. Firstly without innovators and secondly with innovators. In the absence of innovators the non-linear incidence reduced to standard incidence and similar results to the ones in the first model were obtained. With the presence of innovators there is no drug free equilibrium. Numerically we fit the model to data on the number of patients who enter into treatment centers for rehabilitation. Using the fitted model, we determine the prevalence and incidence of methamphetamine abuse. We investigate the impact of behaviour change, ‘reinfection’ rate as well as uptake rate into treatment on prevalence. Our results suggest that intervention and prevention programs focusing on behaviour change and uptake rate into treatment would reduce the prevalence. Projections are made to determine the possible long term trends of the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse in the Western Cape. We give suggestions related to data that should be collected from a modelling perspective.
- ItemA theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment(Academy of Science of South Africa, 2012-03-16) Kalula, Asha Saidi; Nyabadza, FaraiThe production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tools. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.