Browsing by Author "Iversen, Per Ole"
Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
Results Per Page
- ItemExamination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children’s homes(BioMed Central, 2018-04-17) Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bard A.Background: The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation’s children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children’s food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children’s homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children’s homes’ operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. Methods: We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children’s homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children’s homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. Results: The State of Uganda’s efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children’s homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. Conclusion: The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children’s homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need for capacity development at all levels in the Ugandan state and the international society to delimit capacity gaps in order to realize these human rights’ obligations.
- ItemRealization of the right to adequate food and the nutritional status of land evictees : a case for mothers/caregivers and their children in rural Central Uganda(2018-05-24) Nahalomo, Aziiza; Iversen, Per Ole; Rukundo, Peter Milton; Kaaya, Archileo; Kikafunda, Joyce; Eide, Wenche Barth; Marais, Maritha; Wamala, Edward; Kabahenda, MargaretBackground: In developing countries like Uganda, the human right to adequate food (RtAF) is inextricably linked to access to land for households to feed themselves directly through production or means for its procurement. Whether RtAF is enjoyed among Ugandan land evictees, is unknown. We therefore explored this among land evictees (rights-holders) in Wakiso and Mpigi districts in rural Central Uganda. We assessed food accessibility and related coping strategies, diet quality and nutritional status of children 6–59 months old, and their caregivers. Effectiveness of the complaint and redress mechanisms in addressing RtAF violations was also explored. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quantitative data was collected using a structured questionnaire, with food security and nutritional assessment methods from a total of 215 land evictees including 187 children aged 6–59 months. Qualitative data was collected by reviewing selected national and international documents on the RtAF and key informant interviews with 15 purposively sampled duty-bearers. These included individuals or representatives of the Uganda Human Rights Commission, Resident District Commissioner, Sub-county Chiefs, and local Council leaders. Results: We found that 78% of land evictees had insufficient access to food while 69.4% had consumed a less diversified diet. A majority of evictees (85.2%) relied on borrowing food or help from others to cope with food shortages. Of the 187 children assessed, 9.6% were wasted, 18.2% were underweight and 34.2% were stunted. Small, but significant associations, were found between food accessibility, diet quality, food insecurity coping strategies; and the nutritional status of evictees. We observed that administrative, quasi-judicial and judicial mechanisms to provide adequate legal remedies regarding violations of the RtAF among evictees in Uganda are in place, but not effective in doing so. Conclusion: Land eviction without adequate legal remedies is a contributor to food insecurity and undernutrition in rural Central Uganda. It is essential that the Government strengthens and enforces the policy and legal environment to ensure adequate and timely compensation of evictees in order to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity.
- ItemTwo consecutive episodes of severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in a sickle cell disease patient(Hindawi, 2020-04-15) Mpinganzima, Clarisse; Haaland, Alf; Holm, Anne Guro Vreim; Thein, Swee Lay; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Iversen, Per OlePatients with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer from anemia and painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and sometimes need blood transfusions. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is a rare life-threatening complication observed in SCD and mimics VOC. We describe a female SCD patient undergoing three surgical procedures during which DHTR developed following the first two. Prior to a planned tonsillectomy, she received transfusion and three days after surgery developed severe hemolysis as well as pain and respiratory symptoms. On suspicion of VOC, she received additional transfusions and became hemodynamically unstable, and her hemolytic anemia worsened. Gradually, she recovered and could be discharged after two weeks; DHTR was not suspected. Sixteen months later, an arthroplasty was performed due to avascular necrosis, and again she was transfused preoperatively. Similar to the initial surgery, she developed symptoms and signs of VOC after three days, but this time, DHTR was suspected and further transfusions were withheld. Although immunosuppressive medication did not alleviate the condition, she improved on combined treatment with darbepoietin, rituximab, and eculizumab. Six months later, a second arthroplasty was performed uneventfully after prophylaxis with rituximab and without transfusion. DHTR should be considered in the presence of severe, unexplained hemolysis following a recent transfusion, and additional transfusions in this setting should be given only on vital indication.