Browsing by Author "Irusen, Elvis"
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- ItemClinical evolution, management and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa : a research protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-08-06) Allwood, Brian W.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Irusen, Elvis; Lalla, Usha; Davids, Razeen; Chothia, Yazied; Davids, Ryan; Prozesky, Hans; Taljaard, Jantjie; Parker, Arifa; Decloedt, Eric; Jordan, Portia; Lahri, Sa'ad; Moosa, Rafique; Schrueder, Neshaad; Du Toit, Riette; Viljoen, Abraham; English, Rene; Ayele, Birhanu; Nyasulu, Peter; COVID-19 Research Response TeamIntroduction The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19, declared a global pandemic by the WHO, is a novel infection with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. In South Africa, 55 421 cases have been confirmed as of 10 June 2020, with most cases in the Western Cape Province. Coronavirus leaves us in a position of uncertainty regarding the best clinical approach to successfully manage the expected high number of severely ill patients with COVID-19. This presents a unique opportunity to gather data to inform best practices in clinical approach and public health interventions to control COVID-19 locally. Furthermore, this pandemic challenges our resolve due to the high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in our country as data are scarce. This study endeavours to determine the clinical presentation, severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital. Methods and analysis The study will use multiple approaches taking into account the evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospective observational design to describe specific patterns of risk predictors of poor outcomes among patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to Tygerberg Hospital. Data will be collected from medical records of patients with severe COVID-19 admitted at Tygerberg Hospital. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we will investigate the association between the survival time of patients with COVID-19 in relation to one or more of the predictor variables including HIV and TB. Ethics and dissemination The research team obtained ethical approval from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Research Committee of the Tygerberg Hospital. All procedures for the ethical conduct of scientific investigation will be adhered to by the research team. The findings will be disseminated in clinical seminars, scientific forums and conferences targeting clinical care providers and policy-makers.
- ItemIndications for the use of bronchial thermoplasty in severe asthma(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Dheda, Keertan; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Esmail, Aliasgar; Irusen, Elvis; Wechsler, Michael; Niven, Rob M.; Chung, Kian Fan; Bateman, Eric D.Approximately 5% of the ~3 million asthmatics in South Africa have severe asthma that is associated with substantial morbidity, cost, absenteeism, preventable mortality, and the requirement for costly chronic medication that may be associated with significant adverse events. There is an unmet need for alternative safer and more effective interventions for severe asthma. A recently introduced option, bronchial thermoplasty (BT), imparts radiofrequency-generated heat energy to the airways to cause regression of airway smooth muscle. The effectiveness of this technique has been confirmed in randomised control trials and is now endorsed by several international guidelines, including the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline, the British Asthma Guideline, and the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline. We recommend BT as a potential therapeutic intervention for severe uncontrolled asthma, provided that it is performed by an experienced pulmonologist at an accredited centre and done within the broader context of appropriate management of the disease by doctors experienced in treating difficult-to-control asthma.
- ItemPost-tuberculosis health-related quality of life, lung function and exercise capacity in a cured pulmonary tuberculosis population in the Breede Valley District, South Africa(AOSIS, 2019) Daniels, Kurt J.; Irusen, Elvis; Pharaoh, Hamilton; Hanekom, SusanBackground: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) remains a major concern worldwide. Albeit curable, PTB continues to negatively affect patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functioning even after cure. Objectives: To describe the demographics, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary airflow patterns, HRQoL and exercise capacity of cured PTB patients, in the Breede Valley district of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at five primary health care facilities included adult patients diagnosed with PTB, who had completed anti-tuberculosis treatment. Post-treatment bronchodilator lung function, HRQoL and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured. Results: Three hundred and twenty-four patients were screened. Specific challenges resulted in 45 patients being included (male n = 25 [56%]; mean population age 39.9 [± 10.2]). HRQoL was assessed using the short-form 12v2, part of the burden of lung disease core questionnaire. In general, self-reported physical scores (physical health component summary score = 45) were higher than mental scores (mental health component summary score = 39). The mean 6MWD was 294.5 m (± 122.7) m (range 110 m – 600 m), which is well below normal reference values. Forty-eight percent (48%) of the sample presented with abnormal lung function, including obstructive (n = 9; 21%), restrictive (n = 11; 25%) and mixed (n = 1; 2%). Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that most cured PTB patients have decreased HRQoL, exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. This study is the first to describe the combination of these three outcomes in a South African population.
- ItemQuality of asthma care : Western Cape Province, South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009) Mash, Bob; Rhode, Hilary; Pather, Michael; Ainslie, Gillian; Irusen, Elvis; Bheekie, Angeni; Mayers, PatBackground. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. Methods. The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. Results. Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. Conclusion. The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.
- ItemRecommendations for the use of bronchial thermoplasty in the management of severe asthma(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Dheda, Keertan; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Esmail, Aliasgar; Irusen, Elvis; Wechsler, Michael; Niven, Rob M.; Bateman, Eric D.; Chung, Kian FanThere are approximately 3 million asthma suffers in South Africa, and the national death rate is ranked as one of the highest in the world. Approximately 5% have severe asthma (uncontrolled despite being adherent on maximal and optimised therapy). Such uncontrolled asthma is associated with high healthcare expenditure and may require treatment with anti-IgE and/or systemic corticosteroids, in addition to inhaler therapy and oral agents. These treatments may be costly, and those such as oral corticosteroids may have potential serious adverse events. There is therefore a need for more effective, affordable and safe therapies for asthma. A new modality of treatment, bronchial thermoplasty (BT), has recently been developed and approved for the treatment of severe asthma. BT involves delivering radio frequency-generated thermal energy to the airways, with the goal of reducing airway-specific smooth-muscle mass. Several clinical studies have confirmed that BT is effective and safe, that it improves control and quality of life in patients whose asthma remains severe despite optimal medical therapy, and that the beneficial effects are sustained for at least 5 years. We provide recommendations for the management of severe asthma, with an emphasis on the role of BT, and endorse the use of BT in patients with severe persistent asthma who remain uncontrolled despite optimal medical therapy as outlined in steps 4 and 5 of the British Thoracic Society (BTS)/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. We outline the context in which BT should be used, how it works and associated potential adverse events and contraindications, and also review unanswered questions and controversies.