Browsing by Author "Honikman, Simone"
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- ItemComparison of mental health screening tools for detecting antenatal depression and anxiety disorders in South African women(Public Library of Science, 2018-04-18) Van Heyningen, Thandi; Honikman, Simone; Tomlinson, M.; Field, Sally; Myer, LandonBackground Antenatal depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries. Screening of pregnant women in primary care antenatal settings provides an opportunity for entry to care, but data are needed on the performance of different screening tools. We compared five widely-used questionnaires in a sample of pregnant women in urban South Africa. Method Pregnant women attending a primary care antenatal clinic were administered five tools by trained research assistants: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10) and a shortened 6-item version (K6), the Whooley questions and the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-2). Following this, a registered mental health counsellor administered the MINI Plus, a structured clinical diagnostic interview. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis was used to summarise screening test performance and Cronbach’s α used to assess internal consistency. Results Of 376 participants, 32% were diagnosed with either MDE and/or anxiety disorders. All five questionnaires demonstrated moderate to high performance (AUC = 0.78–0.85). The EPDS was the best performing instrument for detecting MDE and the K10 and K6 for anxiety disorder. For MDE and/or anxiety disorders, the EPDS had the highest AUC (0.83). Of the short instruments, the K10 (AUC = 0.85) and the K6 (AUC = 0.85) performed the best, with the K6 showing good balance between sensitivity (74%) and specificity (85%) and a good positive predictive value (70%). The Whooley questions (AUC = 0.81) were the best performing ultra-short instrument. Internal consistency ranged from good to acceptable (α = 0.89–0.71). However, the PPV of the questionnaires compared with the diagnostic interview, ranged from 54% to 71% at the optimal cut-off scores. Conclusions Universal screening for case identification of antenatal depression and anxiety disorders in low-resource settings can be conducted with a number of commonly used screening instruments. Short and ultra-short screening instruments such as the K6 and the Whooley questions may be feasible and acceptable for use in these settings.
- ItemIntimate Partner Violence (IPV) in South Africa : how to break the vicious cycle(Alan J Flisher Centre for Public Mental Health (CPMH) Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, 2015-11) Joyner, Kate; Rees, Kate; Honikman, SimoneENGLISH SUMMARY : Half of women murdered in South Africa are killed by their intimate partner. Our country has reported the highest rates of such murders in the world.1 However, the devastating physical, mental and social consequences of this problem are mostly hidden. There is very strong evidence that intimate partner violence (IPV) exists in a vicious cycle with HIV, mental illness, poor reproductive health, poor childhood development and chronic disease, and leads to numerous injuries, disability and death.2,3 Abused women are twice as likely as non-abused women to report physical and mental health problems.4 This problem is costly since women in abusive relationships make greater use of health and other services.
- ItemMaternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries : a situational analysis(BioMed Central, 2016-02-16) Baron, Emily C.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mall, Sumaya; Honikman, Simone; Breuer, Erica; Kathree, Tasneem; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Nakku, Juliet; Lund, Crick; Medhin, Girmay; Patel, Vikram; Petersen, Inge; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Tomlinson, MarkBackground: The integration of maternal mental health into primary health care has been advocated to reduce the mental health treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study reports findings of a cross-country situation analysis on maternal mental health and services available in five LMICs, to inform the development of integrated maternal mental health services integrated into primary health care. Methods: The situation analysis was conducted in five districts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda, as part of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME). The analysis reports secondary data on the prevalence and impact of priority maternal mental disorders (perinatal depression, alcohol use disorders during pregnancy and puerperal psychosis), existing policies, plans and services for maternal mental health, and other relevant contextual factors, such as explanatory models for mental illness. Results: Limited data were available at the district level, although generalizable data from other sites was identified in most cases. Community and facility-based prevalences ranged widely across PRIME countries for perinatal depression (3–50 %) and alcohol consumption during pregnancy (5–51 %). Maternal mental health was included in mental health policies in South Africa, India and Ethiopia, and a mental health care plan was in the process of being implemented in South Africa. No district reported dedicated maternal mental health services, but referrals to specialised care in psychiatric units or general hospitals were possible. No information was available on coverage for maternal mental health care. Challenges to the provision of maternal mental health care included; limited evidence on feasible detection and treatment strategies for maternal mental disorders, lack of mental health specialists in the public health sector, lack of prescribing guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women, and stigmatising attitudes among primary health care staff and the community. Conclusions: It is difficult to anticipate demand for mental health care at district level in the five countries, given the lack of evidence on the prevalence and treatment coverage of women with maternal mental disorders. Limited evidence on effective psychosocial interventions was also noted, and must be addressed for mental health programmes, such as PRIME, to implement feasible and effective services.
- ItemPartnerships in a global mental health research programme — the example of PRIME(Springer, 2019) Breuer, Erica; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhana, Arvin; Chisholm, Dan; De Silva, Mary; Fekadu, Abebaw; Honikman, Simone; Jordans, Mark; Kathree, Tasneem; Kigozi, Fred; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Marx, Maggie; Medhin, Girmay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Patel, Vikram; Petersen, Inge; Prince, Martin; Raja, Shoba; Rathod, Sujit D.; Shidhaye, Rahul; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Wolde-Giorgis, Tedla; Lund, CrickCollaborative research partnerships are necessary to answer key questions in global mental health, to share expertise, access funding and influence policy. However, partnerships between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries have often been inequitable with the provision of technical knowledge flowing unilaterally from high to lower income countries. We present the experience of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME), a LMIC-led partnership which provides research evidence for the development, implementation and scaling up of integrated district mental healthcare plans in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. We use Tuckman’s first four stages of forming, storming, norming and performing to reflect on the history, formation and challenges of the PRIME Consortium. We show how this resulted in successful partnerships in relation to management, research, research uptake and capacity building and reflect on the key lessons for future partnerships.
- ItemPRIME : a programme to reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders in five low- and middle-income countries(Public Library of Science, 2012-12-27) Lund, Crick; Tomlinson, Mark; De Silva, Mary; Fekadu, Abebaw; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; Kigozi, Fred; Prince, Martin; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kakuma, Ritsuko; McDaid, David; Saxena, Shekhar; Chisholm, Dan; Raja, Shoba; Kippen-Wood, Sarah; Honikman, Simone; Fairall, Lara; Patel, VikramThe majority of people living with mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries do not receive the treatment that they need. There is an emerging evidence base for cost-effective interventions, but little is known about how these interventions can be delivered in routine primary and maternal health care settings.The aim of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) is to generate evidence on the implementation and scaling up of integrated packages of care for priority mental disorders in primary and maternal health care contexts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda.PRIME is working initially in one district or sub-district in each country, and integrating mental health into primary care at three levels of the health system: the health care organisation, the health facility, and the community.The programme is utilising the UK Medical Research Council complex interventions framework and the ‘‘theory of change’’ approach, incorporating a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of these packages.PRIME includes a strong emphasis on capacity building and the translation of research findings into policy and practice, with a view to reducing inequities and meeting the needs of vulnerable populations, particularly women and people living in poverty.
- ItemStepped care for maternal mental health : a case study of the perinatal mental health project in South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2012-05-29) Honikman, Simone; Van Heyningen, Thandi; Field, Sally; Baron, Emily; Tomlinson, MarkMaternal mental health is largely neglected in low- and middle-income countries.There is no routine screening or treatment of maternal mental disorders in primary care settings in South Africa. The Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP) developed an intervention to deliver mental health care to pregnant women in a collaborative, step-wise manner making use of existing resources in primary care. Over a 3-year period, 90% of all women attending antenatal care in the maternity clinic were offered mental health screening with 95% uptake. Of those screened, 32% qualified for referral to counselling. Through routine screening and referral, the PMHP model demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of a stepped care approach to provision of mental health care at the primary care level.
- ItemTask sharing of a psychological intervention for maternal depression in Khayelitsha, South Africa : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2014-11) Lund, Crick; Schneider, Marguerite; Davies, Thandi; Nyatsanza, Memory; Honikman, Simone; Bhana, Arvin; Bass, Judith; Bolton, Paul; Dewey, Michael; Joska, John; Kagee, Ashraf; Myer, Landon; Petersen, Inge; Prince, Martin; Stein, Dan J.; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Alem, Atalay; Susser, EzraBackground: Maternal depression carries a major public health burden for mothers and their infants, yet there is a substantial treatment gap for this condition in low-resourced regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. To address this treatment gap, the strategy of “task sharing” has been proposed, involving the delivery of interventions by non-specialist health workers trained and supervised by specialists in routine healthcare delivery systems. Several psychological interventions have shown benefit in treating maternal depression, but few have been rigorously evaluated using a task sharing approach. The proposed trial will be the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a task sharing model of delivering care for women with maternal depression in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this RCT is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a task sharing counseling intervention for maternal depression in South Africa. Methods/Design: The study is an individual-level two-arm RCT. A total of 420 depressed pregnant women will be recruited from two ante-natal clinics in a low-income township area of Cape Town, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for depression; 210 women will be randomly allocated to each of the intervention and control arms. The intervention group will be given six sessions of basic counseling over a period of 3 to 4 months, provided by trained community health workers (CHW)s. The control group will receive three monthly phone calls from a CHW trained to conduct phone calls but not basic counseling. The primary outcome measure is the 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). The outcome measures will be applied at the baseline assessment, and at three follow-up points: 1 month before delivery, and 3 and 12 months after delivery. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat and secondary analyses will be on a per protocol population. The primary outcome measure will be analyzed using linear regression adjusting for baseline symptom severity measured using the HDRS-17. Discussion: The findings of this trial can provide policy makers with evidence regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of structured psychological interventions for maternal depression delivered by appropriately trained and supervised non-specialist CHWs in sub-Saharan Africa. Trial registration: Clinical Trials: (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01977326, registered on 24/10/2013; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.pactr.org): PACTR201403000676264, registered on 11/10/2013.