Browsing by Author "Hanekom, Susan D."
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- ItemBenefits of curriculum renewal : the Stellenbosch University physiotherapy experience(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2014-10) Unger, Marianne; Hanekom, Susan D.Background. Driven by a changing healthcare environment, the Division of Physiotherapy (Stellenbosch University) reduced core content and adopted a multimodal approach to teaching and learning. The benefits of curriculum renewal, however, are seldom investigated despite ongoing internal appraisal. Evaluation of the BSc Physiotherapy programme was considered incomplete without determining the worth of the programme. Objectives. To determine whether there was a change in students’ perception of the impact of the programme on personal development; and whether the programme prepared them for community service. Methods. A descriptive comparative desktop analysis was conducted in which the data from the Faculty’s Programme Evaluation process were compared between students enrolled in the old curriculum (2006) and students enrolled in the new curriculum (2011) using pooled data and t-tests to compare responses between the two groups. A level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results. A significant increase in scores was noted for various graduate attributes developed as a result of the programme, such as critical thinking, clinical reasoning, communication and sourcing information (p<0.01). Similarly, students scored their perceptions related to programme structure significantly higher (p<0.01). No change was reported regarding students’ ability to maintain a balance between studies and other activities. Scores pertaining to their perception of readiness for community service or professional practice remained the same with both cohorts believing they were well prepared. Conclusion. The renewed format seemed to benefit students greatly in assisting the development of graduate attributes. Students were significantly more satisfied with the structure of the renewed curriculum and – despite extensive changes – the principles-based multimodal approach to teaching and learning was perceived as effective for preparing students for community service. Programmes undertaking curriculum renewal should not only focus on the curriculum content but also develop a variety of learning opportunities to facilitate the development of graduate attributes. The next cycle of evaluation should however reflect on clinical practice.
- ItemCriteria for enhancing mucus transport : a systematic scoping review(BioMed Central, 2018-07-06) Pieterse, Alison; Hanekom, Susan D.Background: Uncertainty exists regarding the physiological basis of physiotherapy strategies to facilitate mucus clearance. The aim of this review was to describe the physiological factors and intrinsic conditions that facilitate airway mucus transport. Method: A scoping review was performed. A systematic literature search of six databases was executed. Eligibility criteria were applied by two researchers to reach the aim of the review. Papers were identified independently by two reviewers on title, abstract and full-text level. Any discrepancies were discussed with a third reviewer. Results: The search identified 35 papers published between 1975 and 2015. These differed significantly in terms of outcome measures, measurement techniques and methodologies and included animal studies, laboratory investigations, and the use of small human samples. Nine key factors influencing mucus transport were identified. These include: temperature and humidity, bronchial perfusion, ATP, forced expiratory technique and cough, generation of oscillation, ventilation patterns/airflow, epithelial differences, mucus properties and positioning. Conclusion: This review provides a framework for factors/conditions influencing mucus transport. Existing physiotherapy strategies for augmentation of airway mucus clearance can now be evaluated against the framework and new modalities informed.
- ItemDoes a problem-based learning approach benefit students as they enter their clinical training years? : lecturers’ and students’ perceptions(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2014-10) Statham, Sue B.; Inglis-Jassiem, Gakeemah; Hanekom, Susan D.; Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences. Dept. of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. Physiotherapy.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents the findings of a study completed to establish the differences between the lecturers’ and students’ perceptions of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) approach in successfully completing a PBL module in the third year of physiotherapy training at Stellenbosch University. Objectives. To assess the perception of the achievement of the PBL benefits, the module outcomes, the barriers to learning and positive aspects of the module. Methods. A theory-based evaluation approach using both qualitative and quantitative methods was used. All students and lecturers involved with the new module were invited to participate in the study. The participants consisted of 37 students and 11 lecturers. The data were collected using questionnaires and focus group discussions for both groups. The different components of the theory (PBL methods) were used as the guiding themes for the analysis of the qualitative data. The quantitative (ordinal) data are presented using descriptive statistics. Results. The results indicated that the module was enjoyed by both groups. The achievement of the generic outcomes for the module produced mixed results. Areas of agreement and areas of differences in perceptions relating to the achievement of the expected PBL benefits are discussed. Conclusion. PBL as a new methodology presents challenges for both groups; however, many of the benefits of PBL, in particular self-directed learning, were achieved. Some areas of shortfall are discussed.
- ItemExercise-based rehabilitation for major non-communicable diseases in low-resource settings : a scoping review(BMJ Publishing Group, 2019) Heine, Martin; Lupton-Smith, Alison; Pakosh, Maureen; Grace, Sherry L.; Derman, Wayne; Hanekom, Susan D.Introduction: While there is substantial evidence for the benefits of exercise-based rehabilitation in the prevention and management of non-communicable disease (NCD) in high-resource settings, it is not evident that these programmes can be effectively implemented in a low-resource setting (LRS). Correspondingly, it is unclear if similar benefits can be obtained. The objective of this scoping review was to summarise existing studies evaluating exercise-based rehabilitation, rehabilitation intervention characteristics and outcomes conducted in an LRS for patients with one (or more) of the major NCDs. Methods: The following databases were searched from inception until October 2018: PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and trial registries. Studies on exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer or chronic respiratory disease conducted in an LRS were included. Data were extracted with respect to study design (eg, type, patient sample, context), rehabilitation characteristics (eg, delivery model, programme adaptations) and included outcome measures. Results: The search yielded 5930 unique citations of which 60 unique studies were included. Study populations included patients with cardiovascular disease (48.3%), diabetes (28.3%), respiratory disease (21.7%) and cancer (1.7%). Adaptations included transition to predominant patient-driven home-based rehabilitation, training of non-conventional health workers, integration of rehabilitation in community health centres, or triage based on contextual or patient factors. Uptake of adapted rehabilitation models was 54%, retention 78% and adherence 89%. The majority of the outcome measures included were related to body function (65.7%). Conclusions: The scope of evidence suggests that adapted exercise-based rehabilitation programmes can be implemented in LRS. However, this scope of evidence originated largely from lower middle-income, urban settings and has mostly been conducted in an academic context which may hamper extrapolation of evidence to other LRS. Cost-benefits, impact on activity limitations and participation restrictions, and subsequent mortality and morbidity are grossly understudied.
- ItemReaching consensus on the physiotherapeutic management of patients following upper abdominal surgery : a pragmatic approach to interpret equivocal evidence(BioMed Central, 2012-02-06) Hanekom, Susan D.; Brooks, Dina; Denehy, Linda; Fagevick-Olsen, Monika; Hardcastle, Timothy C.; Manie, Shamila; Louw, QuinetteAbstract Background Postoperative pulmonary complications remain the most significant cause of morbidity following open upper abdominal surgery despite advances in perioperative care. However, due to the poor quality primary research uncertainty surrounding the value of prophylactic physiotherapy intervention in the management of patients following abdominal surgery persists. The Delphi process has been proposed as a pragmatic methodology to guide clinical practice when evidence is equivocal. Methods The objective was to develop a clinical management algorithm for the post operative management of abdominal surgery patients. Eleven draft algorithm statements extracted from the extant literature by the primary research team were verified and rated by scientist clinicians (n = 5) in an electronic three round Delphi process. Algorithm statements which reached a priori defined consensus-semi-interquartile range (SIQR) < 0.5-were collated into the algorithm. Results The five panelists allocated to the abdominal surgery Delphi panel were from Australia, Canada, Sweden, and South Africa. The 11 draft algorithm statements were edited and 5 additional statements were formulated. The panel reached consensus on the rating of all statements. Four statements were rated essential. Conclusion An expert Delphi panel interpreted the equivocal evidence for the physiotherapeutic management of patients following upper abdominal surgery. Through a process of consensus a clinical management algorithm was formulated. This algorithm can now be used by clinicians to guide clinical practice in this population.
- ItemTeaching my peers : perceptions of tutors in physiotherapy practical skills training(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2014-10) Unger, Marianne; Keiller, Lianne; Inglis-Jassiem, Gakeemah; Hanekom, Susan D.Background. A near-peer tutorial system was introduced and implemented as part of a second-year module to assist physiotherapy students with the practising of manual techniques. Although not the primary drive for initiating this system, there are potential added benefits for the tutor reported in the literature. Objective. To determine the effect of near-peer teaching on the perceptions undergraduate physiotherapy students have of their own learning. Methods. A descriptive study utilising mixed methods was used. A pre-tutorial focus group discussion (FGD) format explored the expectations and perceptions of tutors’ own abilities and the proposed tutorial system. The researchers conducted a post-tutorial FGD to explore the experiences and perceptions of the tutors’ learning experiences. The responses were transcribed and analysed using deductive thematic analysis. A questionnaire was used to quantify which competencies or skills student tutors thought they had obtained through the facilitation of the tutorial sessions. The results were explored using a competency framework. Results. All ten tutors in the 2012 programme participated in the study. Students moved from unconscious incompetence to conscious incompetence, and seemed to have reached the phase of conscious competence by the end of the programme. Unconscious competence was not observed. More than half of the tutors agreed that the programme had a positive impact on their communication, ability to transfer skills and their own understanding of techniques and underlying theory, while two tutors felt that the programme did not improve their own theoretical basis of techniques. Conclusion. Participating and functioning as near-peer tutors had a positive influence on physiotherapy students’ perceptions of their own learning both in terms of own clinical technique competency, but also as teachers and facilitators of learning. It is hypothesised that these students will transition effectively between clinician and health advocator/teacher.
- ItemThe way in which a physiotherapy service is structured can improve patient outcome from a surgical intensive care : a controlled clinical trial(BioMed Central, 2012-12) Hanekom, Susan D.; Louw, Quinette; Coetzee, AndreIntroduction: The physiological basis of physiotherapeutic interventions used in intensive care has been established. We must determine the optimal service approach that will result in improved patient outcome. The aim of this article is to report on the estimated effect of providing a physiotherapy service consisting of an exclusively allocated physiotherapist providing evidence-based/protocol care, compared with usual care on patient outcomes. Methods: An exploratory, controlled, pragmatic, sequential-time-block clinical trial was conducted in the surgical unit of a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Protocol care (3 weeks) and usual care (3 weeks) was provided consecutively for two 6-week intervention periods. Each intervention period was followed by a washout period. The physiotherapy care provided was based on the unit admission date. Data were analyzed with Statistica in consultation with a statistician. Where indicated, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Significant differences between groups or across time are reported at the alpha level of 0.05. All reported P values are two-sided. Results: Data of 193 admissions were analyzed. No difference was noted between the two patient groups at baseline. Patients admitted to the unit during protocol care were less likely to be intubated after unit admission (RR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.71; RRR, 0.84; NNT, 5.02; P = 0.005) or to fail an extubation (RR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.98; RRR, 0.77; NNT, 6.95; P = 0.04). The mean difference in the cumulative daily unit TISS-28 score during the two intervention periods was 1.99 (95% CI, 0.65 to 3.35) TISS-28 units (P = 0.04). Protocol-care patients were discharged from the hospital 4 days earlier than usual-care patients (P = 0.05). A tendency noted for more patients to reach independence in the transfers (P = 0.07) and mobility (P = 0.09) categories of the Barthel Index. Conclusions A physiotherapy service approach that includes an exclusively allocated physiotherapist providing evidence-based/protocol care that addresses pulmonary dysfunction and promotes early mobility improves patient outcome. This could be a more cost-effective service approach to care than is usual care. This information can now be considered by administrators in the management of scarce physiotherapy resources and by researchers in the planning of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Trial registration PACTR201206000389290
- ItemWhat does an enquiry-based approach offer undergraduate physiotherapy students in their final year of study?(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2014-10) Inglis-Jassiem, Gakeemah; Statham, Sue B.; Hanekom, Susan D.Background. Physiotherapy students in their final year at Stellenbosch University (SU) complete a module that follows an enquiry-based learning (EBL) approach. This module exposes them to higher-order problem solving and was developed to facilitate independent self-directed learning and improved higher-order thinking skills. Objective. To describe the perceptions of undergraduate physiotherapy students on the impact of this EBL approach on their learning. Methods.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with three consecutive cohorts of final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire was used to obtain information related to the students’ perception of this module. Coding and identification of themes were done independently using an inductive approach. Initial themes were compared and discussed to achieve consensus regarding the final themes reported. Results.Students reported the development of skills such as the ability to source relevant information and problem-solving abilities. Students attributed improvements in their clinical reasoning and performance during clinical work to the skills they developed during this module. The main themes identified as barriers to learning during this module were availability of learning materials, quality assurance and time constraints. Group work was identified as both a facilitator and a barrier to their learning. Conclusion. Physiotherapy students at SU perceived the introduction of a module following an EBL approach positively. They developed skills such as sourcing information and problem-solving, which they perceived improved their clinical work. The main barriers to learning were time constraints and concerns regarding quality assurance of learning material. Group work was regarded as both facilitatory and a barrier to learning. Programmes considering the implementation of EBL should ensure sufficient resource material and that quality assurance mechanisms are in place to address students’ anxiety regarding learning material. Guidance and support to students during the initial implementation phase of an EBL approach are necessary to allay fears and frustrations.