Browsing by Author "Goosen, Anneke"
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- ItemComparing cross-group and same-group friendships amongst white South African students at Stellenbosch University(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011--03) Goosen, Anneke; Swart, Hermann; Painter, Desmond; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Psychology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Friendships in general are a very powerful form of interpersonal contact, and cross-group friendships in particular have been shown to be particularly effective in promoting positive outgroup attitudes (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Very few studies have compared same-group and cross-group friendships along their underlying processes. The present study aimed to explore, firstly, the differences and similarities between same-group and cross-group friendships along various interpersonal variables, including friendship length, friendship type, friendship contact, positive and negative reciprocal self-disclosure, friendship functions, and friendship affection. Secondly, the present study explored, and compared, the structural relationships between these interpersonal variables across the two friendship conditions. Thirdly, the present study explored how the generalization of attitudes towards the specific cross-group friendship influence attitudes to the outgroup as a whole. Finally, the present study explored the extent to which contact with a specific cross-group friend exposed the ingroup participants to a broader social network of outgroup members. Cross-sectional survey data was collected amongst 468 White South African first year students studying at Stellenbosch University using electronic surveys. The final sample comprised of 235 of the respondents in the same-group friendship condition (who completed questions relating to their closest same-gender, White South African friend) and 233 respondents in the cross-group friendship condition (who completed questions relating to their closest same-gender, Coloured South African friend). Results indicated that same-group friendships were qualitatively more intimate than cross-group friendships, characterized by significantly greater scores on all the interpersonal variables. Path analyses revealed a number of differences in the structural relationships between the interpersonal variables across the two friendship conditions, as well as a number of important mediation effects for both same- and cross-group friendships. Furthermore, cross-group friendship affection was significantly associated with more positive attitudes towards the outgroup in general, even when controlling for prior contact with the outgroup in general. Finally, contact with the cross-group friend was associated with greater contact with the cross-group friend‟s same-group friends, which was in turn associated with more outgroup friendships. Collectively, these results not only shed light on the mean-level and structural similarities and differences amongst interpersonal-level friendship variables associated with same- and cross-group friendships, but they also make a valuable contribution to the contact literature, providing a number of insights for the improvement of structured intergroup contact interventions that are aimed at facilitating the development of cross-group friendships and the improvement of outgroup attitudes.
- ItemInstruments measuring blunted affect in schizophrenia : a systematic review(Public Library of Science, 2015-06) Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin A.Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms.