Browsing by Author "Friedrich, Sven O."
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- ItemAMP kinase activation and glut4 translocation in isolated cardiomyocytes(Clinics Cardive Publishing, 2010-04) Webste, Ingrid; Friedrich, Sven O.; Lochner, Amanda; Huisamen, BarbaraActivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) results in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation from the cytosol to the cell membrane, and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscles. This increased activation of AMPK can be stimulated by a pharmacological agent, AICAR (5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside), which is converted intracellularly into ZMP (5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribonucleosidephosphate), an AMP analogue. We utilised AICAR and ZMP to study GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in isolated cardiomyocytes. Adult ventricular cardiomyocytes were treated with AICAR or ZMP, and glucose uptake was measured via [3H]-2-deoxyglucose accumulation. PKB/Akt, AMPK and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation were detected by Western blotting or flow cytometry. AICAR and ZMP promoted AMPK phosphorylation. Neither drug increased glucose uptake but on the contrary, inhibited basal glucose uptake, although GLUT4 translocation from the cytosol to the membrane occurred. Using flow cytometry to detect the exofacial loop of the GLUT4 protein, we showed ineffective insertion in the membrane under these conditions. Supplementing with nitric oxide improved insertion in the membrane but not glucose uptake. We concluded that activation of AMPK via AICAR or ZMP was not sufficient to induce GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in isolated cardiomyocytes. Nitric oxide plays a role in proper insertion of the protein in the membrane but not in glucose uptake.
- ItemComparing rates of mycobacterial clearance in sputum smear-negative and smear-positive adults living with HIV(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-05-22) Machowski, Edith E.; Letutu, Matebogo; Lebina, Limakatso; Waja, Ziyaad; Msandiwa, Reginah; Milovanovic, Minja; Gordhan, Bhavna G.; Otwombe, Kennedy; Friedrich, Sven O.; Chaisson, Richard; Diacon, Andreas H.; Kana, Bavesh; Martinson, NeilBackground: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLH) frequently presents as sputum smearnegative. However, clinical trials of TB in adults often use smear-positive individuals to ensure measurable bacterial responses following initiation of treatment, thereby excluding HIV-infected patients from trials. Methods: In this prospective case cohort study, 118 HIV-seropositive TB patients were assessed prior to initiation of standard four-drug TB therapy and at several time points through 35 days. Sputum bacillary load, as a marker of treatment response, was determined serially by: smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, liquid culture, and colony counts on agar medium. Results: By all four measures, patients who were baseline smear-positive had higher bacterial loads than those presenting as smear-negative, until day 35. However, most smear-negative PLH had significant bacillary load at enrolment and their mycobacteria were cleared more rapidly than smear-positive patients. Smear-negative patients’ decline in bacillary load, determined by colony counts, was linear to day 7 suggesting measurable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the decrease in bacterial counts was comparable to smear-positive individuals. Increasing cycle threshold values (Ct) on the Xpert assay in smear-positive patients to day 14 implied decreasing bacterial load. Conclusion: Our data suggest that smear-negative PLH can be included in clinical trials of novel treatment regimens as they contain sufficient viable bacteria, but allowances for late exclusions would have to be made in sample size estimations. We also show that increases in Ct in smear-positive patients to day 14 reflect treatment responses and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay could be used as biomarker for early treatment response.
- ItemDirect susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 system(American Society for Microbiology, 2016-05) Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O.; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Diacon, Andreas H.Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens.
- ItemMycobactericidal activity of sutezolid (PNU-100480) in sputum (EBA) and blood (WBA) of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis(PLoS, 2014-04-14) Wallis, Robert S.; Dawson, Rodney; Friedrich, Sven O.; Venter, Amour; Paige, Darcy; Zhu, Tong; Silvia, Annette; Gobey, Jason; Ellery, Craig; Zhang, Yao; Eisenach, Kathleen; Miller, Paul; Diacon, Andreas H.Rationale: Sutezolid (PNU-100480) is a linezolid analog with superior bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the hollow fiber, whole blood and mouse models. Like linezolid, it is unaffected by mutations conferring resistance to standard TB drugs. This study of sutezolid is its first in tuberculosis patients. Methods: Sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients were randomly assigned to sutezolid 600 mg BID (N = 25) or 1200 mg QD (N = 25), or standard 4-drug therapy (N = 9) for the first 14 days of treatment. Effects on mycobacterial burden in sputum (early bactericidal activity or EBA) were monitored as colony counts on agar and time to positivity in automated liquid culture. Bactericidal activity was also measured in ex vivo whole blood cultures (whole blood bactericidal activity or WBA) inoculated with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Results: All patients completed assigned treatments and began subsequent standard TB treatment according to protocol. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for bactericidal activity in sputum over the 14 day interval excluded zero for all treatments and both monitoring methods, as did those for cumulative WBA. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events, premature discontinuations, or dose reductions due to laboratory abnormalities. There was no effect on the QT interval. Seven sutezolid-treated patients (14%) had transient, asymptomatic ALT elevations to 173±34 U/L on day 14 that subsequently normalized promptly; none met Hy's criteria for serious liver injury. Conclusions: The mycobactericidal activity of sutezolid 600 mg BID or 1200 mg QD was readily detected in sputum and blood. Both schedules were generally safe and well tolerated. Further studies of sutezolid in tuberculosis treatment are warranted.
- ItemPopulation pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of the bactericidal activities of sutezolid (PNU-100480) and its major metabolite against intracellular mycobacterium tuberculosis in ex vivo whole-blood cultures of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis(American Society for Microbiology, 2014) Zhu, Tong; Friedrich, Sven O.; Diacon, Andreas; Wallis, Robert S.Sutezolid (PNU-100480 [U-480]) is an oxazolidinone antimicrobial being developed for the treatment of tuberculosis. An active sulfoxide metabolite (PNU-101603 [U-603]), which reaches concentrations in plasma several times those of the parent, has been reported to drive the killing of extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis by sutezolid in hollow-fiber culture. However, the relative contributions of the parent and metabolite against intracellular M. tuberculosis in vivo are not fully understood. The relationships between the plasma concentrations of U-480 and U-603 and intracellular whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBA) in ex vivo cultures were examined using a direct competitive population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic 4-parameter sigmoid model. The data set included 690 PK determinations and 345 WBA determinations from 50 tuberculosis patients enrolled in a phase 2a sutezolid trial. The model parameters were solved iteratively. The median U-603/U-480 concentration ratio was 7.1 (range, 1 to 28). The apparent 50% inhibitory concentration of U-603 for intracellular M. tuberculosis was 17-fold greater than that of U-480 (90% confidence interval [CI], 9.9- to 53-fold). Model parameters were used to simulate in vivo activity after oral dosing with sutezolid at 600 mg twice a day (BID) and 1,200 mg once a day (QD). Divided dosing resulted in greater cumulative activity (−0.269 log10 per day; 90% CI, −0.237 to −0.293 log10 per day) than single daily dosing (−0.186 log10 per day; 90% CI, −0.160 to −0.208 log10 per day). U-480 accounted for 84% and 78% of the activity for BID and QD dosing, respectively, despite the higher concentrations of U-603. Killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis by orally administered sutezolid is mainly due to the activity of the parent compound. Taken together with the findings of other studies in the hollow-fiber model, these findings suggest that sutezolid and its metabolite act on different mycobacterial subpopulations.
- ItemSputum volume predicts sputum mycobacterial load during the first 2 weeks of antituberculosis treatment(American Society for Microbiology, 2015-12) Karinja, Miriam N.; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Friedrich, Sven O.; Diacon, Andreas H.Disease severity in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is associated with mycobacterial sputum load. To ascertain whether reduced sputum production during treatment is a useful clinical sign of improvement, we analyzed the mycobacterial loads of 5,552 sputum samples collected from 439 newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients who participated in six 14-day studies of antituberculosis treatment. Sputum volumes were categorized as low (<6 ml), medium (6 to 10 ml), or large (>10 ml), and mycobacterial load was measured by the time to positivity in liquid culture and the CFU counts on solid culture. The association of sputum volume with mycobacterial load was estimated with multiple linear regression models adjusted for repeated measures. The predictor variables were sputum volume category, treatment day, specific study , and the interaction of sputum volume category and treatment day. Mycobacterial load was significantly associated only with the day on treatment and sputum volume, which tended to decrease with ongoing treatment. With the volume held constant, each day on treatment decreased the log CFU by 0.082 (P < 0.001) and increased the time to positivity (TTP) by 1.04 h (P < 0.001). From low to medium and from medium to large sputum volumes, the log CFU/ml increased by 0.265 (P < 0.003) and 0.490 (P < 0.001), respectively, and the TTP decreased by 1.17 h (P < 0.001) and 1.30 h (P < 0.001), respectively, for a given day of treatment. The variability of the sputum load measurements increased with the day of treatment and lower sputum volumes. The significant association of sputum volume and mycobacterial load validates decreasing sputum production as a clinical sign of improvement during early antituberculosis treatment.