Browsing by Author "Fox, Matthew P."
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- ItemA comparison of death recording by health centres and civil registration in South Africans receiving antiretroviral treatment(International AIDS Society, 2015-12-16) Johnson, Leigh F.; Dorrington, Rob E.; Laubscher, Ria; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Wood, Robin; Fox, Matthew P.; Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Prozesky, Hans; Tanser, Frank; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, AndrewIntroduction: There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID) numbers and provided data comparing the outcomes recorded in patient files and in the vital registration. Patients were excluded if they had missing/invalid IDs or had transferred to other ART programmes. Results: After exclusions, 91,548 patient records were included. Of deaths recorded in patients files after 2003, 94.0% (95% CI: 93.3 94.6%) were recorded by civil registration, with completeness being significantly higher in urban areas, older adults and females. Of deaths recorded by civil registration after 2003, only 35.0% (95% CI: 34.2 35.8%) were recorded in patient files, with this proportion dropping from 60% in 2004 2005 to 30% in 2010 and subsequent years. Recording of deaths in patient files was significantly higher in children and in locations within 50 km of the health centre. When the information from the two systems was combined, an estimated 96.2% of all deaths were recorded (93.5% in children and 96.2% in adults). Conclusions: South Africa’s civil registration system has achieved a high level of completeness in the recording of mortality. However, the fraction of deaths recorded by health centres is low and information from patient records is insufficient by itself to evaluate levels and predictors of ART patient mortality. Previously documented improvements in ART mortality over time may be biased if based only on data from patient records.
- ItemHIV viral load as an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in South Africa : collaborative analysis of cohort studies(Wiley Open Access, 2017) Fenner, Lukas; Atkinson, Andrew; Boulle, Andrew; Fox, Matthew P.; Prozesky, Hans; Zurcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Furrer, Hansjakob; Zwahlen, Marcel; Davies, Mary-Ann; Egger, MatthiasIntroduction: Chronic immune activation due to ongoing HIV replication may lead to impaired immune responses against opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). We studied the role of HIV replication as a risk factor for incident TB after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We included all HIV-positive adult patients ( 16 years) in care between 2000 and 2014 at three ART programmes in South Africa. Patients with previous TB were excluded. Missing CD4 cell counts and HIV-RNA viral loads at ART start (baseline) and during follow-up were imputed. We used parametric survival models to assess TB incidence (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) by CD4 cell and HIV-RNA levels, and estimated the rate ratios for TB by including age, sex, baseline viral loads, CD4 cell counts, and WHO clinical stage in the model. We also used Poisson general additive regression models with time-updated CD4 and HIV-RNA values, adjusting for age and sex. Results: We included 44,260 patients with a median follow-up time of 2.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.0–5.0); 3,819 incident TB cases were recorded (8.6%). At baseline, the median age was 34 years (IQR 28–41); 30,675 patients (69.3%) were female. The median CD4 cell count was 156 cells/μL (IQR 79–229) and the median HIV-RNA viral load 58,000 copies/mL (IQR 6,000–240,000). Overall TB incidence was 26.2/1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.3–27.0). Compared to the lowest viral load category (0–999 copies/mL), the adjusted rate ratio for TB was 1.41 (95% CI 1.15–1.75, p < 0.001) in the highest group (>10,000 copies/mL). Time-updated analyses for CD4/HIV-RNA confirmed the association of viral load with the risk for TB. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ongoing HIV replication is an important risk factor for TB, regardless of CD4 cell counts, and underline the importance of early ART start and retention on ART.
- ItemLife expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment : collaborative analysis of cohort studies(Public Library of Science, 2013-04-09) Johnson, Leigh F.; Mossong, Joel; Dorrington, Rob E.; Schomaker, Michael; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Keiser, Olivia; Fox, Matthew P.; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Belen Garone, Daniela; Cornell, Morna; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, AndrewBackground Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults. Methods and Findings Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2–30.2) at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3–10.8) at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0–39.7) and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3–15.3), respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1–46.0) if her baseline CD4 count was ≥200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2–33.0) if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%–20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations. Conclusions South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well.
- ItemSeasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-positive individuals in Southern Africa : analysis of cohort studies at antiretroviral treatment programmes(BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-01) Ballif, Marie; Zurcher, Kathrin; Reid, Stewart E.; Boulle, Andrew; Fox, Matthew P.; Prozesky, Hans W.; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, LukasObjectives Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa. Setting Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Participants We analysed data of 331 634 HIV-positive adults (>15 years), who initiated ART between January 2004 and December 2014. Primary outcome measure We calculated aggregated averages in monthly counts of PTB diagnoses and ART initiations. To account for time trends, we compared deviations of monthly event counts to yearly averages, and calculated correlation coefficients. We used multivariable regressions to assess associations between deviations of monthly ART initiation and PTB diagnosis counts from yearly averages, adjusted for monthly air temperatures and geographical latitude. As controls, we used Kaposi sarcoma and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) diagnoses. Results All programmes showed monthly variations in PTB diagnoses that paralleled fluctuations in ART initiations, with recurrent patterns across 2004–2014. The strongest drops in PTB diagnoses occurred in December, followed by April–May in Zimbabwe and South Africa. This corresponded to holiday seasons, when clinical activities are reduced. We observed little monthly variation in ART initiations and PTB diagnoses in Zambia. Correlation coefficients supported parallel trends in ART initiations and PTB diagnoses (correlation coefficient: 0.28, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.35, P<0.001). Monthly temperatures and latitude did not substantially change regression coefficients between ART initiations and PTB diagnoses. Trends in Kaposi sarcoma and EPTB diagnoses similarly followed changes in ART initiations throughout the year. Conclusions Monthly variations in PTB diagnosis at ART programmes in Southern Africa likely occurred regardless of seasonal variations in temperatures or latitude and reflected fluctuations in clinical activities and changes in health-seeking behaviour throughout the year, rather than climatic factors.
- ItemTwelve-year mortality in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in South Africa(Wiley Open Access, 2018) Cornell, Morna; Johnson, Leigh F.; Wood, Robin; Tanser, Frank; Fox, Matthew P.; Prozesky, Hans; Schomaker, Michael; Egger, Matthias; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, AndrewIntroduction: South Africa has the largest number of individuals living with HIV and the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme worldwide. In September 2016, ART eligibility was extended to all 7.1 million HIV-positive South Africans. To ensure that further expansion of services does not compromise quality of care, long-term outcomes must be monitored. Few studies have reported long-term mortality in resource-constrained settings, where mortality ascertainment is challenging. Combining site records with data linked to the national vital registration system, sites in the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa collaboration can identify >95% of deaths in patients with civil identification numbers (IDs). This study used linked data to explore long-term mortality and viral suppression among adults starting ART in South Africa. Methods: The study was a cohort analysis of routine data on adults with IDs starting ART 2004–2015 in five large ART cohorts. Mortality was estimated overall and by gender using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox’s proportional hazards regression. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by dividing observed numbers of deaths by numbers expected if patients had been HIV-negative. Viral suppression in patients with viral loads (VLs) in their last year of followup was the secondary outcome. Results: Among 72,812 adults followed for 350,376 person years (pyrs), the crude mortality rate was 3.08 (95% CI 3.02– 3.14)/100 pyrs. Patients were predominantly female (67%) and the percentage of men initiating ART did not increase. Cumulative mortality 12 years after ART initiation was 23.9% (33.4% male and 19.4% female). Mortality peaked in patients enrolling in 2007–2009 and was higher in men than women at all durations. Observed mortality rates were higher than HIVnegative mortality, decreasing with duration. By 48 months, observed mortality was close to that in the HIV-negative population, and SMRs were similar for all baseline CD4 strata. Three-quarters of patients had VLs in their last year, and 86% of these were virally suppressed. Conclusions: The South African ART programme has shown a remarkable ability to initiate and manage patients successfully over 12 years, despite rapid expansion. With further scale-up, testing and initiating men on ART must be a national priority.