Browsing by Author "Flepisi, Thabile Brian"
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- ItemBiomarkers of HIV associated malignancies and of drug interaction between anti-retrovirals (ARVs) and chemotherapy(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-12) Flepisi, Thabile Brian; Rosenkranz, Bernd; Bouic, Patrick J. D.; Sissolak, Gerhard; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Medicine: Clinical Pharmacology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Altered immune mechanisms play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), as evidenced by increased rates of NHL among HIV+ patients [De Roos et al., 2012; Mellgren et al., 2012]. AIMS: To determine whether biomarkers of B-, T-cell activation, and inflammation are elevated in HIV+NHL patients; and whether cART influences their expression. METHODS: The expression of CD8+CD38 and FoxP3 were determined by flow cytometry; the serum concentrations of circulating sCD20, sCD23, sCD27, sCD30 and sCD44 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and the serum concentrations of circulating IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and TNF-α were determined by meso-scale discovery (MSD) assay in 141 participants consisting of HIV positive NHL (HIV+NHL), HIV negative NHL (NHL); combination antiretroviral treated HIV+ (HIV+ cART), treatment naive HIV+ (cART-naïve HIV+) patients; and healthy controls. RESULTS: HIV+NHL patients had higher serum concentrations of sCD20 (p<0.0001 and p=0.0359), sCD23 (p=0.0192 and p<0.0001), sCD30 (p=0.0052 and p<0.0001), sCD44 (p=0.0014 and p<0.0001), and IL-4 (p=0.0234 and p=0.03360); and lower expression of FoxP3 (p<0.0001 and p=0.0171) as compared to NHL and HIV+ cART patients. As compared to NHL patients, the serum concentrations of IL-2 (p=0.0115), and TNF-α (p=0.0258) were higher in HIV+NHL patients, while those of IL-1β (p=0.0039) were significantly lower. HIV+NHL patients had higher expression of CD8+CD38 (p=0.0104), serum concentrations of IFN-γ (p=0.0085), and IL-6 (p=0.0265); and lower serum concentrations of IL-12p70 (p=0.0012) than HIV+ cART patients. As compared to controls, NHL had higher concentrationsof all biomarkers investigated except FoxP3 expression. As compared to HIV+ cART and controls, cART-naïve HIV+ patients had higher concentrations of all biomarkers investigated except sCD23 and FoxP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Biomarkers of chronic B- and T-cell activation and inflammation are up-regulated in HIV+NHL and the untreated HIV+ state. cART decreases immune activation and inflammation.
- ItemRole of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and its substrate proteins in the development of cardiomyopathy associated with obesity and insulin resistance(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Flepisi, Thabile Brian; Huisamen, Barbara; Lochner, Amanda; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences. Medical Physiology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine protein kinase that was first discovered as a regulator of glycogen synthase thus playing a role in glycogen synthesis (Embi et al. 1980). GSK-3 has also been shown to down regulate the expression of SERCA-2a (a calcium ATPase pump) thus playing a role in myocardial contractility (Michael et al. 2004). However, SERCA-2a activity is regulated by phospholamban (PLM) and sarcolipin (SLN) (Asahi et al. 2003). GSK-3 is constitutively active in cells and can be acutely inactivated by insulin through phosphorylation by PKB/Akt. However, GSK-3 is known to phosphorylate and inhibit IRS-1 protein, thus disrupting insulin signaling (Eldar-Finkelman et al. 1996). In addition, abnormally high activities of GSK-3 protein has been implicated in several pathological disorders which include type 2 diabetes, neuron degenerative and affective disorders (Eldar-Finkelman et al 2009). This led to the development of new generations of inhibitors with specific clinical implications to treat these diseases (Martinez 2008). GSK-3 inhibition has been shown to improve insulin and blood glucose levels and to be cardioprotective during ischemia/reperfusion (Nikoulina et al. 2002; Kumar et al. 2007). AIMS: To determine whether myocardial GSK-3 protein and its substrate proteins are dysregulated in obesity and insulin resistance, and whether a specific GSK-3 inhibitor can prevent or reverse the cardiovascular pathology found in obese and insulin resistant animals. OBJECTIVES: To correlate the alterations in expression and activation of GSK-3 protein in a well characterised rat model of obesity coupled to insulin resistance with: i) myocardial contractile dysfunction and an inability of hearts to withstand ischemia/reperfusion, ii) the activation and expression of phospholamban and SERCA-2a in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, iii) the activation of intermediates (IRS-1, IRS-2 and PKB/Akt) that lie upstream in the activation pathway of GSK-3 and iv) to determine the effects of inhibition of GSK-3 on the abovementioned parameters. METHODS: Age and weight matched male Wistar rats (controls and diet induced obese (DIO) animals) were used in the present study. Controls were fed normal rat chow, while DIOs were fed a rat chow diet supplemented with sucrose and condensed milk, for 8 or 16 weeks. Half of each group of animals were treated with the GSK-3 inhibitor for 4 weeks (from 12 to 16 weeks). After the feeding and treatment period, animals were weighed, sacrificed, hearts removed and freeze clamped immediately or perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer and subjected to low flow ischemia (25 min) followed by 30 min reperfusion. Biometric (body weight, intraperitoneal fat, ventricular weight and tibia length) and biochemical (fasting blood glucose and insulin levels) parameters were determined. Expression of GSK-3, PKB/Akt, IRS-1, IRS-2, SERCA-2a and Phospholamban were determined by Western blotting. Ca2+ ATPase activity was determined spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: At both 8 and 16 weeks DIO animals were significantly bigger than control animals and this was associated with increased intraperitoneal fat in DIOs. In DIO animals: IRS-1 was downregulated at 8 weeks and both IRS-1 and IRS-2 as well as PKB/Akt at 16 weeks. There was an increased tendency of GSK-3 expression at both 8 and 16 weeks in DIO animals while SERCA-2a was severely downregulated from 8 weeks onwards and associated with lower Ca2+-ATPase activity. PLM expression was upregulated but its phosphorylation was attenuated. At 16 weeks, baseline heart rate (225 vs 275 in control, P<0.0001, n=6) and rate pressure product (21000 vs 30000 in control, P=0.019, n=6) were significantly lower in hearts from DIO animals. Functional recovery was unchanged but the time to ischemic contracture development was increased (11.6±0.4 control vs 16.2±0.5 min DIO, P<0.01, n=6). Treatment had no effect on total GSK-3 expression. However, GSK-3 phosphorylation was significantly increased in treated controls, while there was no significant difference in DIO animals. However, there was a tendency for an increased GSK-3 phosphorylation in treated DIO animals. GSK-3 inhibitor, improved hypertrophy in DIO animals, while it led to its development in control animals. GSK-3 inhibitor improved IRS-2 expression in both control and DIO animals while it had no effect on IRS-1 and SERCA-2a expression and activity. However, GSK-3 inhibition increased PKB/Akt and phospholamban phosphorylation in DIO animals. CONCLUSION: These findings show that high calorie diet as well as imbalance between energy intake and expenditure lead to the development of obesity and insulin resistance in male Wistar rats. We showed that GSK-3 and its substrate proteins are dysregulated in obesity and insulin resistance. The reduced SERCA-2a expression at baseline may have a negative impact on cardiac function. By treating the animals with GSK-3 inhibitor, we showed that GSK-3 protein may not be responsible for changes seen at baseline. The decreased IRS-1 and SERCA-2a expression may have been caused by a different mechanism other than the actions of GSK-3. However, according to this study, GSK-3 may play a role in regulation of IRS-2 expression but not in IRS-1. Increased PKB/Akt phosphorylation may contribute to the GSK-3 inhibition. In addition, GSK-3 inhibition may reverse cardiac hypertrophy in DIO animals, thus acting as a negative regulator of hypertrophy.