Browsing by Author "Engelbrecht, Amos S."
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- ItemA confirmatory factor analytic study of a self-leadership measure in South Africa(AOSIS Publishing, 2013-06) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.; De Kock, Francois S.Orientation: Self-leadership is considered to be essential for effective individual functioning in occupational and academic contexts. The revised self-leadership questionnaire (RSLQ) is widely utilised for measuring self-leadership, but its psychometric properties have not been established on a South African sample. By implication, important questions also exist about the theoretical structure of self-leadership in the South African context. Research purpose: The research aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and factorial validity of the revised self-leadership questionnaire on a South African sample. In doing so, the results of the research would also provide valuable insights into the latent factor structure of the self-leadership construct. Motivation for the study: On a practical level, the research sought internal validity evidence for the use of the RSLQ in the South African context. On a theoretical level, questions remain about the best conceptual representation of self-leadership as a construct. Research design, approach and method: The revised self-leadership questionnaire was administered to a non-probability sample of 375 South African young adults. The first and second-order factor structure underlying contemporary models of self-leadership using confirmatory factor analytic techniques was tested. Main findings: Results showed that the RSLQ measured self-leadership with suitable reliability and internal validity. All eight subscales had high internal consistency coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the first and second-order models conclusively demonstrated good factorial validity. Practical/managerial implications: The study found that the RSLQ has good measurement properties for a South African context. Academics, practitioners and managers are urged to use the measure in its present form for applications such as leadership development and promoting self-management. Contribution/value-addition: The study extends the body of psychometric evidence supporting the use of the revised self-leadership questionnaire in the South African milieu. The researchers have further indicated that self-leadership can be represented by a hierarchical latent factor structure, where a general factor drives more specific dimensions of self-leadership.
- ItemEffect of ethical leadership and climate on effectiveness(AOSIS Publishing, 2017) Engelbrecht, Amos S.; Wolmarans, Janneke; Mahembe, BrightOrientation: The increasing prevalence of theft, sabotage and other deviant behaviours in the workplace has disastrous effects for organisations, such as lowered effectiveness, escalated costs and the organisation’s declining reputation. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to design and investigate the relationships among perceived leader effectiveness, ethical climate and ethical leadership. A further objective of the investigation was to validate a conceptual model clarifying the structural associations among the latent constructs in the South African corporate domain. Motivation for the study: A successful leader is both an ethical and an effective leader. An organisation’s leadership is seen as the most critical element in establishing and maintaining an ethical climate in organisations. Research design, approach and method: A convenient and multi-cultural sample comprised of 224 employees from various organisations in South Africa. The structure and content of the variables were analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), beside item analysis. Main findings: Satisfactory reliability was found for all the measurement scales. The results of CFA demonstrated acceptable fit with the data for the refined measurement and structural models. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated positive relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate and leader effectiveness. Practical implications: Organisational leaders should take full responsibility for cultivating ethics through ethical leader behaviour and an ethical climate. By reinforcing these aspects, perceived leader effectiveness can be advanced, which will ultimately decrease corruption and other forms of counterproductive behaviour in South African organisations. Contribution: The study provides further theoretical and empirical evidence that leadership effectiveness can be realised through instilling an ethical organisational climate in which ethical leadership is exhibited and encouraged.
- ItemThe influence of ethical leadership on trust and work engagement : an exploratory study(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-11-26) Engelbrecht, Amos S.; Heine, Gardielle; Mahembe, BrightOrientation: Work engagement is increasingly becoming an important outcome for organisational success. A trusting and ethical relationship between leaders and followers is likely to positively contribute to the work engagement of employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and trust in the leader and the effect these constructs have on the work engagement of employees. Motivation for the study: The study on the role of ethical leadership practices on employee engagement was motivated by the need to create an engaged workforce and a trusting work environment. Research approach, design and method: Data was collected using an electronic web-based questionnaire comprising three scales, namely the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES),Leader Trust Scale (LTS) and the Leadership of Ethics Scale (LES). In total, 204 completed questionnaires were returned. Data was analysed by means of item and confirmatory factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling (SEM). Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for all the measurement scales used. The results from the structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated positive relationships between trust in the leader and work engagement, between ethical leadership and work engagement and between ethical leadership and trust in the leader. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the role played by ethical leadership behaviour of managers in promoting work engagement through the creation of employee relationships anchored on trust. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further by identifying other variables that influence work engagement. Contribution/value-add: Organisations today still face the challenge of developing an effective strategy for achieving work engagement. The ethical leadership style of managers is likely to create an ethical and trusting work climate conducive to the work engagement of employees.This is likely to enhance productivity as well as employee creativity and innovation.
- ItemA preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-09) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained. Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment offer some important insights into the factor structure of the cultural intelligence construct. Motivation for the study: The current study sought to provide some practical validity confirmation of the CQS for the effective management of cultural diversity in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: The CQS was administered on a non-probability sample of 229 young adults in South Africa. Item analysis was performed to ascertain reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test the unidimensionality of CQS subscales. The first-order and second-order factor structures underlying contemporary models of cultural intelligence were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Main findings: Results indicated that the CQS is a reliable and valid measure of cultural intelligence as evidenced by the high internal consistency coefficients in all the subscales. Good construct validity for both the first-order and second-order models was obtained via confirmatory factor analysis. Practical/managerial implications: The study finds good measurement properties of the CQS in a South African context. The CQS can be confidently used for applications such as selecting, training and developing a more culturally competent workforce. Contribution: The study extends the body of knowledge on the reliability and construct validity of the CQS in the South African milieu. It further indicates that cultural intelligence can be represented by a general cultural intelligence factor that drives more specific dimensions of cultural intelligence.
- ItemThe principled leadership scale : an integration of value-based leadership(AOSIS Publishing, 2019) Hendrikz, Karen; Engelbrecht, Amos S.Orientation: A need exists to investigate leader behaviour necessary to curb the corruption that has infected and weakened South Africa’s moral fibre. Such leader behaviour would need to be underpinned by a set of universal moral values. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a new measure, the principled leadership scale (PLS), by integrating the value-based behaviours inherent in transformational, servant, authentic and ethical leadership. Motivation for the study: Leader behaviour intrinsic to value-based leadership was found to be closely aligned with universal moral values. Because the study found a considerable overlap between the behaviours mentioned in the value-based leadership theories, it sought to integrate these behaviours under one construct and to develop a reliable and valid scale to assess this construct. Research approach/design and method: Data from the quantitative study were analysed by means of item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory bi-factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling. Main findings: The confirmatory bi-factor solution corroborated a strong general principled leadership factor and four moderately weak group factors. The statistical analyses provided good fit of the PLS measurement model with the empirical data. Practical and managerial implications: The study found acceptable measurement properties of the PLS that may be used for applications, such as the selecting, training and developing of ethical leadership in organisations. Contribution/value-add: The study adds value in that it is the first to integrate the four value-based leadership theories under one construct and to develop a potential psychometrically sound instrument to measure principled leadership.
- ItemThe relationship between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness(AOSIS Publishing, 2013-04) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.Orientation: Value-based leadership practices play a critical role in teamwork in highperformance organisations. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness. Motivation for the study: The increased reliance on teams for production calls for an analysis of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in enhancing team effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: A non-probability and multicultural sample consisting of 202 primary and secondary school teachers was drawn from 32 schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found and uni-dimensionality of the subscales was demonstrated through exploratory factor analyses. Good fit with the data was found for the measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling showed a reasonable fit for the structural model. Positive relationships were found amongst servant leadership, team effectiveness and affective team commitment. Standard multiple regression analysis showed that affective team commitment moderated the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the central role played by servant leadership and affective team commitment in team performance. Servant leadership fosters team effectiveness if employees feel committed to their work team. Contribution/value-add: The servant leadership style alone may not be a sufficient condition for team effectiveness; other variables, such as affective team commitment, also play a role. The study suggested specific variables that may also combine with leadership to positively influence team effectiveness.
- ItemThe relationship between transformational leadership, integrity, and an ethical climate in organisations(AOSIS Publishing, 2009-10) Van Aswegen, Anja S.; Engelbrecht, Amos S.By effectively utilising the transformational leadership process, an organisation’s culture can be transformed into one that encourages ethical behaviour. The aim of this study was to validate a theoretical model to explain the relationships between leadership, integrity and an ethical climate. A non-probability sample of employees (n = 203) from medium to large companies was used. Data were analysed by item, factor and multiple regression analyses. The results revealed that transformational leadership has a positive effect on the dimensions of an ethical climate. No convincing support was found for the proposition that integrity moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and the dimensions of an ethical climate.
- ItemA study to confirm the reliability and construct validity of an organisational citizenship behaviour measure on a South African sample(AOSIS Publishing, 2015-10) Mahembe, Bright; Engelbrecht, Amos S.; Chinyamurindi, Willie; Kandekande, Linda R.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Orientation: Organisational citizenship behaviour, or extra-role behaviours, are essential outcomes for the health functioning of organisations. Research purpose: The primary goal of the study was to validate the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS) developed by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: Organisational citizenship behaviour is one of the important workplace outcomes. A psychometrically sound instrument is therefore required. Research design, approach and method: The sample consisted of 503 employees from the educational sector in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. The OCBS was used to measure organisational citizenship behaviour. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for the OCBS sub-scales. The first and second-order measurement models of the OCBS showed good fit. A competing one-factor model did not show good model fit. In terms of discriminant validity four of the five subdimensions correlated highly. Practical/managerial implications: Although the OCBS demonstrated some sound reliability coefficients and reasonable construct validity, the discriminant validity of four of the subscales raise some questions which future studies should confirm. The use of the instrument should help to continue to measure the much-needed extra-role behaviours that mirror an employee’s interest in the success of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the requirements of the Employment Equity Act (No. 55 of 1998) and the Amended Employment Equity Act of South Africa (Republic of South Africa, 1998; 2014). This promotes the use of reliable and valid instruments in South Africa by confirming the psychometric properties of the OCBS.