Browsing by Author "Dube, B."
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- ItemEstimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow productivity traits in the South African Large White pigs(South African Society for Animal Science, 2012) Dube, B.; Mulugeta, Sendros D.; Dzama, K.The objective of the study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow productivity traits of South African Large White pigs, using data from the Integrated Registration and Genetic Information Systems. The analyses were done on 29 719 records for 7 983 sows from 29 herds, which farrowed between 1990 and 2008. Data were analysed as a sow trait using a repeatability animal model. The traits analysed were number of piglets born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (LBWT), 21-day litter size (D21LS) and 21-day litter weight (D21LWT). Estimates of heritability for these traits were 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.01, respectively. The respective repeatability estimates for the traits were 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.12 ± 0.01. Genetic correlations among the traits ranged from 0.32 ± 0.07 between NBA and D21LWT to 0.88 ± 0.04 between NBA and D21LS. The phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.35 ± 0.01 between NBA and D21LWT to 0.75 ± 0.01 between NBA and LBWT. Litter traits at birth were more heritable and repeatable than traits measured at 21 days of age. In general, all traits showed positive genetic and phenotypic trends for the period studied. The heritability of sow productivity traits was low and less repeatable, which suggests that response to selection may be slow and that the performance in the first parity may not always predict future performance. However, because of their economic importance, an attempt should always be made to keep these traits at their optimum.
- ItemGenetic analysis of somatic cell score and udder type traits in South African Holstein cows(South African Society for Animal Science, 2008) Dube, B.; Dzama, K.; Banga, C. B.Selection accuracy for resistance to mastitis may be increased by combining somatic cell score (SCS) and udder type into an udder health index, using genetic parameter estimates among them. A multi-trait animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters among lactation average SCS and udder type traits in South African Holstein cattle, through REML procedures. Data comprised records on 22 999 Holstein cows in 722 herds, collected through the National Milk Recording Scheme from 1996 to 2002. Average SCS in the first three lactations (SCS1, SCS2, SCS3) were considered as different traits and the udder type traits were fore udder attachment (FUA), rear udder height (RUH), udder cleft (UC), udder depth (UD), fore teat length (FTL) and fore teat placement (FTP). Heritability estimates for SCS were 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.02, respectively for SCS 1, SCS2 and SCS3. Udder type traits had heritability estimates ranging from 0.13 ± 0.01 for UC to 0.34 ± 0.01 for FTL. The genetic correlations between lactation SCS ranged from 0.82 ± 0.04 to 0.99 ± 0.03 for correlations of SCS3 with SCS1 and SCS2, respectively. Genetic correlations between SCS and udder type traits were in the range -0.01 ± 0.07 between FUA and SCS3 to -0.38 ± 0.04 between UD and SCS1 and SCS2. Slow genetic progress is expected when selection is applied independently on SCS and udder type traits, due to the generally low heritability estimates. Low, shallow udders with narrowly placed teats are associated with low SCS in the South African Holstein population.
- ItemNon-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass characteristics of two South African pig breeds(South African Society for Animal Science, 2011) Dube, B.; Mulugeta, S. D.; Van Der Westhuizen, R. R.; Dzama, K.A study was conducted to establish non-genetic factors affecting growth and carcass traits in Large White and Landrace pigs. This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds respectively. The traits analyzed were backfat thickness (BFAT), test period gain (TPG), lifetime gain (LTG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), age at slaughter (AGES), lean percentage (LEAN), drip-free lean percentage (DLEAN), drip loss (DRIP), dressing percentage (DRESS), carcass length (CRLTH) and eye muscle area (AREA). Significant effects were determined using PROC GLM of SAS. Herd of origin, year of testing and their interaction significantly affected all traits. Most traits were not affected by season of testing in both breeds, while all traits in both breeds were significantly affected by sex. Testing environment (station, farm) affected all growth traits except for LTG. Backfat thickness and AGES increased with increasing total feed intake, while other traits decreased as total feed intake increased. Improved test centre management did not compensate for pre-test underperformance. Castrates produced higher carcass yields of lower quality than females, while performance testing showed the best results when done at testing centres. This study showed the importance of adjusting for fixed effects when performing genetic evaluations in the two pig populations.