Browsing by Author "Du Plessis, Kobus"
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- ItemEvaluation of the standard design flood method in selected basins in South Africa(South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 2012-10) Gericke, Jaco; Du Plessis, KobusDesign flood estimations display relatively wide confidence bands of uncertainty around all estimates of flood magnitude-frequency relationships. Taking cognisance of this, and the fact that most of the available design flood estimation methods in South Africa were developed in the 1970s and have not been updated since, led to the development of the Standard Design Flood (SDF) method (Alexander 2002a; 2002b; 2003). In this study, the SDF method was evaluated by establishing the accuracy of the regionalised SDF runoff coefficients, taking both the areal extent and homogeneous hydrological catchment responses into consideration. The SDF runoff coefficients were evaluated, calibrated and verified at a quaternary catchment level in SDF basin 9 (primary study area) and in 19 of the other 29 SDF basins in South Africa (secondary study areas) by establishing catchment parameters and evaluating the ratios between the results obtained through the SDF method and probabilistic analysis. The results showed that the original SDF method overestimated the magnitude and frequency (return period) of flood peaks in all the basins under consideration, while the verification results confirmed that the calibrated/verified SDF method, based on quaternary runoff coefficients, significantly improves the accuracy in comparison with the probabilistic analysis results. The result confirmed that the probabilistic-based approach of the original SDF method does not have the ability to overcome the deficiencies evident in the other design flood estimation techniques used in South Africa. Revision of the runoff coefficients at a quaternary catchment level is proposed.
- ItemSupplementary household water sources to augment potable municipal supply in South Africa(South African Water Research Commission, 2017-10) Nel, Nicole; Jacobs, Heinz Erasmus; Loubser, Carlo; Du Plessis, KobusENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources on potable water demand in formal residential areas. Reliable potable municipal supply to urban consumers via the water distribution system is typically linked to relatively low uptake of household water sources. However, stringent water restrictions in some large South African cities that prohibit outdoor use, and reports of intermittent water supply, have led to increased uptake of household sources in South Africa. This paper describes the legal position regarding such sources in South Africa, and describes an end-use model to assess the theoretical impact on water demand in formal residential areas. The model provides valuable strategic direction and indicates a significant theoretical reduction in potable municipal water demand of between 55% and 69% for relatively large properties when household sources are maximally utilised (when compared to exclusive unrestricted municipal use as a baseline). This load reduction on piped reticulation systems could be an advantage in order to augment municipal supply, but water service planning and demand management are complicated by the introduction, and possible future decommissioning, of any household water source. The extent of both positive and negative impacts of household water sources requires further research.