Browsing by Author "Du Plessis, Jana"
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- ItemMedium-throughput SNP genotyping and linkage mapping in Haliotis midae(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-12) Du Plessis, Jana; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay; Bester-van der Merwe, Aletta Elizabeth; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Genetics.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Haliotis midae (locally also known as perlemoen) is the largest of five endemic species found along the coast of South Africa. It is the only species with commercial value contributing to the exploitation of these animals. Due to declines of natural stocks, farming practices were established during the early 1990s in order to supply the international demand. To facilitate efficient breeding methods and ensure the sustainability of these commercial populations, genetic management, which can be accomplished with the use of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), is necessary. Single nucleotide polymorphisms have become the markers of choice in various applications in aquaculture genetics due to their abundance in genomes, reduction in developmental costs and increased throughput of genotyping assays. Identification of SNPs in non-model species such as H. midae can be achieved by in silico approaches. In silico methods are suitable for de novo SNP identification and are both cost- and time-efficient. It is based on the analysis of multiple alignments where mismatches may be reported as candidate SNPs. Various medium-throughput genotyping methods are available to confirm putative SNPs, but the ideal method depends on factors such as cost, accuracy and multiplexing capacity. Although SNP markers can have various applications within the aquaculture environment the focus for this current study was saturating the linkage map of H. midae with additional markers. This would assist in the identification of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits, which in turn could ultimately be employed for marker-assisted selection and improved molecular breeding programs. In order to identify in silico SNPs, sequenced transcriptome data from a previous study was used and subjected to a series of criteria: minor allele frequency 10%, minimum coverage 80, 60 bp flanking regions. Selected loci were genotyped using a 192-plex assay with the Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay with the VeraCode technology on the BeadXpress platform, in individuals from six mapping families. A conversion rate of 69.35% and global success rate of 76.34% was achieved. Polymorphic loci were subjected to linkage analysis using JoinMap® v.4.1 to create sex-average and sex-specific maps and to saturate the current linkage map for H. midae. Along with previously developed markers, 54% of the newly developed SNPs could be successfully incorporated into the linkage map of H. midae. A total of 18 linkage groups were observed with an average marker spacing of 6.9 cM and genome coverage of 79.1%. Bioinformatic analyses and setting stringent criteria to identify SNPs from sequenced transcriptomic data proved to be an efficient way for SNP discovery in the current study. Genotyping of the identified loci with the GoldenGate genotyping assay demonstrated a high success rate; providing a genotyping assay adequate for species with little genomic information. The linkage map created in this study illustrated the utility of SNP markers in conjunction with microsatellite markers for linkage map construction and the adequate marker spacing obtained provides a step closer to quantitative trait loci mapping in this species.
- ItemTranscriptome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Abalone (Haliotis midae) : validation and application using GoldenGate medium-throughput genotyping assays(MDPI, 2013-09) Bester-Van der Merwe, Aletta; Blaauw, Sonja; Du Plessis, Jana; Roodt-Wilding, RouvayHaliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide (SNPs). Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%−69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers) with a global genotyping success rate of 76%−85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174) were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50) located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.