Browsing by Author "Donald, Kirsten A."
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- ItemAssessing cognition in children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure in South Africa(Elsevier, 2019) Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J.; Donald, Kirsten A.No abstract available.
- ItemChildren with disabling chronic conditions in the Western health subdistrict of Cape Town, South Africa : estimating numbers and service gaps(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2016-02-22) Redfern, Andrew; Westwood, Anthony; Donald, Kirsten A.Background. Children with disabling chronic conditions often have extensive, complex and unmet healthcare and educational needs. They can be defined as a subset of the group of children with chronic health conditions whose condition results in some degree of functional or activity limitation. There is limited information in South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries with regard to the percentage of such children that access specialist health and special educational services, particularly in an urban setting, and what services exist for them. Objectives. To count the number of children with disabling chronic conditions who were accessing specialist health and special educational services in the Western health subdistrict of Cape Town, and to briefly describe the access to services outside of hospital-based specialist services. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2011. The target population included all children <19 years of age with disabling chronic conditions, living in the Western subdistrict of Cape Town, who were accessing specialist health and special educational services. Such children were identified from the relevant referral hospitals, educational institutions, and private and non-profit organisations in the area. Results. A total of 1 138 children with disabling chronic conditions were identified. In the context of an under-19 population of 112 249, this corresponds to a rate of 10 per 1 000, whereas the expected rate of children with disabling chronic conditions would be about 50 per 1 000. Only 14% of children in special educational institutions attended specialist paediatric services during a 2-year period. Allied health and medical services for children outside of hospitals were very limited. Conclusions. There are a significant number of children with disabling chronic conditions who do not access health and special educational services in the Western health subdistrict of Cape Town. Medical and allied health support for children in institutions is very limited. Current information systems are inadequate to describe the need.
- ItemWhite matter microstructural integrity and neurobehavioral outcome of HIV-exposed uninfected neonates(Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016-01) Tran, Linh T.; Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Koen, Nastassja; Woods, Roger P.; Zar, Heather J.; Narr, Katherine L.; Stein, Dan J.; Donald, Kirsten A.The successful implementation of prevention programs for mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission has dramatically reduced the prevalence of infants infected with HIV while increasing that of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children. Neuropsychological assessments indicate that HEU children may exhibit differences in neurodevelopment compared to unexposed children (HUU). Pathological mechanisms leading to such neurodevelopmental delays are not clear. In this observational birth cohort study we explored the integrity of regional white matter microstructure in HEU infants, shortly after birth. Microstructural changes in white matter associated with prenatal HIV exposure were evaluated in HEU infants (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 22) using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics. Additionally, diffusion values were extracted and compared for white matter tracts of interest, and associations with clinical outcomes from the Dubowitz neonatal neurobehavioral tool were investigated. Higher fractional anisotropy in the middle cerebellar peduncles of HEU compared to HUU neonates was found after correction for age and gender. Scores on the Dubowitz abnormal neurological signs subscale were positively correlated with FA (r = 0.58, P = 0.038) in the left uncinate fasciculus in HEU infants. This is the first study to present data suggesting that prenatal HIV exposure without infection is associated with altered white matter microstructural integrity in the neonatal period. Longitudinal studies of HEU infants as their brains mature are necessary to understand further the significance of prenatal HIV and antiretroviral treatment exposure on white matter integrity and neurodevelopmental outcomes.