Browsing by Author "Dippenaar, Anzaan"
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- ItemComprehensive characterization of the attenuated double auxotroph mycobacterium tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD as an alternative to H37Rv(Frontiers Media, 2019) Mouton, Jomien M.; Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Gallant, James L.; Kleynhans, Leanie; Sampson, Samantha L.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although currently available model organisms such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have significantly contributed to our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) biology, these models have limitations such as differences in genome size, growth rates and virulence. However, attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may provide more representative, safer models to study M. tuberculosis biology. For example, the M. tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD double auxotroph, has undergone rigorous in vitro and in vivo safety testing. Like other auxotrophic strains, this has subsequently been approved for use in biosafety level (BSL) 2 facilities. Auxotrophic strains have been assessed as models for drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for studying latent TB. These offer the potential as safe and useful models, but it is important to understand how well these recapitulate salient features of non-attenuated M. tuberculosis. We therefore performed a comprehensive comparison of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD. These strains demonstrated similar in vitro and intra-macrophage replication rates, similar responses to anti-TB agents and whole genome sequence conservation. Shotgun proteomics analysis suggested that M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD has a heightened stress response that leads to reduced bacterial replication during exposure to acid stress, which has been verified using a dual-fluorescent replication reporter assay. Importantly, infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the 2 strains elicited comparable cytokine production, demonstrating the suitability of M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD for immunological assays. We provide comprehensive evidence to support the judicious use of M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD as a safe and suitable model organism for M. tuberculosis research, without the need for a BSL3 facility.
- ItemA landscape of genomic alterations at the root of a near-untreatable tuberculosis epidemic(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-02-04) Klopper, Marisa; Heupink, Tim Hermanus; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Dippenaar, Anzaan; De Vos, Margaretha; Abdallah, Abdallah Musa; Limberis, Jason; Merker, Matthias; Burns, Scott; Niemann, Stefan; Dheda, Keertan; Posey, James; Pain, Arnab; Warren, Robin MarkBackground: Atypical Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are widespread in South Africa and have acquired resistance to up to 13 drugs on multiple occasions. It is puzzling that these strains have retained fitness and transmissibility despite the potential fitness cost associated with drug resistance mutations. Methods: We conducted Illumina sequencing of 211 Beijing genotype M. tuberculosis isolates to facilitate the detection of genomic features that may promote acquisition of drug resistance and restore fitness in highly resistant atypical Beijing forms. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis was done to determine changes that are unique to the resistant strains that also transmit well. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for streptomycin and bedaquiline was done for a limited number of isolates to demonstrate a difference in MIC between isolates with and without certain variants. Results: Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two clades of atypical Beijing strains have independently developed resistance to virtually all the potent drugs included in standard (pre-bedaquiline) drug-resistant TB treatment regimens. We show that undetected drug resistance in a progenitor strain was likely instrumental in this resistance acquisition. In this cohort, ethionamide (ethA A381P) resistance would be missed in first-line drug-susceptible isolates, and streptomycin (gidB L79S) resistance may be missed due to an MIC close to the critical concentration. Subsequent inadequate treatment historically led to amplification of resistance and facilitated spread of the strains. Bedaquiline resistance was found in a small number of isolates, despite lack of exposure to the drug. The highly resistant clades also carry inhA promoter mutations, which arose after ethA and katG mutations. In these isolates, inhA promoter mutations do not alter drug resistance, suggesting a possible alternative role. Conclusion: The presence of the ethA mutation in otherwise susceptible isolates from ethionamide-naïve patients demonstrates that known exposure is not an adequate indicator of drug susceptibility. Similarly, it is demonstrated that bedaquiline resistance can occur without exposure to the drug. Inappropriate treatment regimens, due to missed resistance, leads to amplification of resistance, and transmission. We put these results into the context of current WHO treatment regimens, underscoring the risks of treatment without knowledge of the full drug resistance profile.
- ItemA phylogenomic- and proteomic investigation into the evolution and biological characteristics of the members of the group 2 Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM) genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Dippenaar, Anzaan; Gey van Pittius, N. C.; Warren, R. M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Molecular Biology and Human Genetics.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects millions of people world-wide. The species M. tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that can be grouped into at least 40 different known strain families. Many of the strains present with different pathogenic characteristics and host adaptations. The F11 LAM strains and Beijing strains currently have a nearly equal representation in the population of Cape Town, making up a total of 45% of all strains in this setting. The Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM) family of M. tuberculosis is proved to be the cause of a large percentage of TB cases worldwide and it is the predominant strain in high-prevalence regions such as the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal regions of South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South America. This project aimed to investigate the evolution and biological characteristics of the members of the principle genetic group (PGG) 2 Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM) genotype of M. tuberculosis using a combination of whole genomic and proteomic analyses, coupled to mycobacterial molecular epidemiological techniques. The evolution of M. tuberculosis strain families from the Western Cape Province of South Africa proved to be consistent with previous evolutionary scenarios for M. tuberculosis isolated from other parts of the world. This genome-wide SNP-based phylogeny for the evolution of M. tuberculosis offers novel insight into the unique global representation of the M. tuberculosis isolates from the Western Cape, South Africa. The evolutionary scenario presented confirms six LAM sub-lineages, namely IS6110 RFLP families F9, F11, F13, F14, F15, and F26. A subset of sub-lineage defining SNPs was determined for each of the six LAM sub-lineages. The genomic changes in the LAM genotype strains observed through the SNP analysis presented here mostly occur in the genes involved in the cell wall, cell processes, intermediary metabolism and respiration. The same phenomenon was observed when the non-redundant SNPs of the non-LAM isolates were functionally annotated. The functional classification of the regulated proteins in the representative of the LAM RDRio lineage of M. tuberculosis suggests that proteins involved in the lipid metabolism, intermediary metabolism and respiration may be the key to the pathogenic effectiveness of the RDRio LAM lineage. A combination of the LAM SNP analysis and the LAM RDRio/non-RDRio comparison showed that the overall genomic- and proteomic features involved in the cell wall and cell processes of the LAM genotype differ to a large extent from what is seen in the reference strain, M. tuberculosis H37Rv. This genome wide phylogenetic study is the first of its kind in a South African context, and not only presents a robust phylogeny of the M. tuberculosis strain families, and specifically the LAM lineage, but also gives the first ever insight into the protein differences which distinguishes RDRio and non-RDRio M. tuberculosis strains from each other.
- ItemReview of diagnostic tests for detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in South African wildlife(Frontiers Media S.A, 2021-01) Bernitz, Netanya; Kerr, Tanya J.; Goosen, Wynand J.; Chileshe, Josephine; Higgitt, Roxanne L.; Roos, Eduard O.; Meiring, Christina; Gumbo, Rachiel; De Waal, Candice; Clarke, Charlene; Smith, Katrin; Goldswain, Samantha; Sylvester, Taschnica T.; Kleynhans, Léanie; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Buss, Peter E.; Cooper, David V.; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; Miller, Michele A.Wildlife tuberculosis is a major economic and conservation concern globally. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused byMycobacteriumbovis (M. bovis), is themost common form of wildlife tuberculosis. In South Africa, to date, M. bovis infection has been detected in 24 mammalian wildlife species. The identification of M. bovis infection in wildlife species is essential to limit the spread and to control the disease in these populations, sympatric wildlife species and neighboring livestock. The detection of M. bovis-infected individuals is challenging as only severely diseased animals show clinical disease manifestations and diagnostic tools to identify infection are limited. The emergence of novel reagents and technologies to identify M. bovis infection in wildlife species are instrumental in improving the diagnosis and control of bTB. This review provides an update on the diagnostic tools to detect M. bovis infection in South African wildlife but may be a useful guide for other wildlife species.
- ItemRifampicin resistant tuberculosis in Lesotho : diagnosis, treatment initiation and outcomes(Nature Research [Commercial Publisher], 2019-12) Katende, Bulemba; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin; Warren, Robin MarkThe Lesotho guidelines for the management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) recommend initiation of patients diagnosed with rifampicin resistant (RR)-TB on a standardized drug resistant regimen while awaiting confirmation of rifampicin resistant TB (RR-TB) and complete drug susceptibility test results. Review of diagnostic records between 2014 and 2016 identified 518 patients with RR-TB. Only 314 (60.6%) patients could be linked to treatment records at the Lesotho MDR hospital. The median delay in treatment initiation from the availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay result was 12 days (IQR 7–19). Only 32% (101) of patients had a documented first-line drug resistant test. MDR-TB was detected in 56.4% of patients while 33.7% of patients had rifampicin mono-resistance. Only 7.4% of patients assessed for second-line resistance had a positive result (resistance to fluoroquinolone). Treatment success was 69.8%, death rate was 28.8%, loss to follow up was 1.0%, and 0.4% failed treatment. Death was associated with positive or unavailable sputum smear at the end of first month of treatment (Fisher exact p < 0.001) and older age (p = 0.007). Urgent attention needs to be given to link patients with RR-TB to care worldwide. The association of death rate with positive sputum smear at the end of the first month of treatment should trigger early individualization of treatment.
- ItemUnexpected genomic and phenotypic diversity of mycobacterium africanum lineage 5 affects drug resistance, protein secretion, and immunogenicity(Oxford University Press, 2018) Ates, Louis S.; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Warren, Robin M.; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Majlessi, Laleh; Van Heijs, Jeroen W. J.; Brossier, Florence; Brosch, RolandENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium africanum consists of Lineages L5 and L6 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and causes human tuberculosis in specific regions of Western Africa, but is generally not transmitted in other parts of the world. Since M. africanum is evolutionarily closely placed between the globally dispersed Mycobacterium tuberculosis and animal-adapted MTBC-members, these lineages provide valuable insight into M. tuberculosis evolution. Here, we have collected 15 M. africanum L5 strains isolated in France over 4 decades. Illumina sequencing and phylogenomic analysis revealed a previously underappreciated diversity within L5, which consists of distinct sublineages. L5 strains caused relatively high levels of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and included multi- and extensively drug-resistant isolates, especially in the newly defined sublineage L5.2. The specific L5 sublineages also exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics related to in vitro growth, protein secretion and in vivo immunogenicity. In particular, we identified a PE_PGRS and PPE-MPTR secretion defect specific for sublineage L5.2, which was independent of PPE38. Furthermore, L5 isolates were able to efficiently secrete and induce immune responses against ESX-1 substrates contrary to previous predictions. These phenotypes of Type VII protein secretion and immunogenicity provide valuable information to better link genome sequences to phenotypic traits and thereby understand the evolution of the MTBC.