Browsing by Author "De Beer, D."
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- ItemChanges in the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of pinotage, cabernet sauvignon, chardonnay and chenin blanc wines during bottle ageing(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2005) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Gelderblom, W. C. A.; Manley, M.The effect of bottle ageing on the antioxidant activity of Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Chenin blanc wines, using the 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH0) scavenging assays, was determined. Storage at 0°C, 15°C or 30°C for a period of 12 months resulted in a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in both the total antioxidant activity (TAAAnTs and TAAoPPH) and the total phenol content of the wines. The antioxidant potency of the total phenols of most of the wines, which is a ratio of antioxidant activity to the total phenol content, also decreased. The total anthocyanins in the red wines decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over 12 months except for storage at 0°C, while the flavanol content of the Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines increased up to nine months storage with a subsequent decrease to 12 months. The flavonol content of all the wines decreased, while only minor changes in their hydroxycinnamate content were observed during the storage period. Understanding the complexity of these reactions may provide clues for stabilising especially red wines to preserve the antioxidant activity without losing the beneficial effects of colouring and flavour development during bottle ageing.
- ItemCharacterisation of pinotage wine during maturation on different oak products(SASEV, 2008-01) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Du Toit, W.; Fourie, B.; Manley, M.The effect of oak contact on the phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and colour of Pinotage wines was investigated during maturation. Oak maturation included traditional treatments, such as new, second-fill and third-fill barrels, as well as alternative treatments (oak chips, staves, extract and dust) applied in old barrels over a period of 28 weeks. Oak maturation using traditional and alternative treatments improved the objective colour of Pinotage wine by decreasing the L* value. Losses in TAC caused by decreased concentrations of monomeric phenolic compounds (most anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) during oak maturation were negated by increased concentrations of gallic acid and the formation of new oligomeric and polymeric pigments. Wine maturation in stainless steel containers also resulted in a decrease in anthocyanin content. The decrease in phenolic acid content for wines matured in stainless steel was less pronounced, while their flavan-3-ol content remained stable. The new-barrel treatment had the most pronounced effect on all parameters. Oak maturation can be used for the production of Pinotage wine when the retention of TAC is a high priority.
- ItemClimatic region and vine structure : effect on pinotage wine phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity and colour(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2006) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Van Schalkwyk, D.; Manley, M.The phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and colour of Pinotage wines of the 2001, 2002 and 2003 vintages were investigated, using spectrophotometric, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), free radical scavenging and objective colour analyses. Grapes were harvested from grapevines in three climatic regions ranging from cool to warm, with bush (20- and 30-cm trunk height) and trellised (30- and 60-cm trunk heights) vine treatments, on several vineyard sites in each climatic area. Climatic region had a significant effect on the content of several phenolic compounds; the concentration of anthocyanin monoglucosides, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and tartaric acid esters of hydroxycinnamic acids generally increased as the climatic region becomes cooler, while concentrations of acylated derivatives and free hydroxycinnamic acids decreased. Wines made from bush vines contained higher concentrations of flavonols, gallic acid and flavan-3-ols than those from trellised vines, but lower concentrations of some anthocyanin monoglucosides and acylated derivatives, as well as non-coloured polymers. These trends resulted in differences in TAC and objective colour parameters, although the different vintages did not show the same trends in all cases. More vintages should therefore be investigated to clarify these effects. Wines from the cool climatic regions and from bush vines were generally darker coloured, with higher TAC than those from the warm climatic regions and bush vines, respectively. High TAC, therefore, coincided with higher colour quality. Variations in TAC were partly explained by trends for individual phenolic compounds, although unknown compounds played a major role.
- ItemComprehensive survey of the distribution of colour and phenolics of different red grape wine vineyard blocks from the Robertson area in South Africa(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2012) Van der Merwe, H.; Nieuwoudt, Helene; De Beer, D.; Du Toit, W. J.Colour and phenolic content of red grapes are two of the most important constituents required to produce a quality red wine. In the Robertson grape growing area, difficulty is sometimes experienced with colour development of grapes. This is especially linked to location and most probably greatly influenced by season. Forty four vineyard blocks of the cultivars Pinotage, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, were studied over 3 seasons primarily to focus on colour and phenolic content, but secondly on total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH of the grapes. High performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric methods were used to determine various colour and phenolic parameters present at harvest. This data was used to indicate how colour and phenolic constitution of a part of the Robertson grape growing area was distributed in relation to various factors, such as cultivar and season. GPS points were used to map data for the blocks visually. Results showed variable colour and phenolic content for these grapes based on blocks and phenolic compounds investigated. Shiraz displayed a wider distribution of certain phenolic compounds over the three seasons than the other 3 cultivars. Seasonality had a great influence on these results, with outlying blocks being identified.
- ItemDeveloping a patient-specific maxillary implant using additive manufacturing and design(Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Stellenbosch University, 2016) Booysen, G. J.; Van der Merwe, A.; De Beer, D.; Van den Heever, C.; Els, J.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Maxillectomy is the surgical removal or resection of the maxilla or upper jaw bone. A total or partial maxillectomy can be performed depending on how far the tumour has spread. This paper will discuss a patient diagnosed with an aggressive tumour in half of the top jaw who had to undergo an operation to remove the hemi-maxilla and orbital floor. Due to the extent and complexity of the defect, it was decided to manufacture an anatomical model of the hard tissues for planning a possible laser-sintered titanium implant using Additive Manufacturing (AM). The CRPM had only two weeks to design and manufacture the titanium implant, due to the severity of the tumour. The anatomical model was sent to the surgeon to cut the nylon model where the bone resection was planned. Furthermore, the prosthodontist made a wax model of the planned titanium frame that was reverse- engineered and used as reference geometry in the design software.Materialise® design suite was used to design the patient-specific maxilla and cutting jig. The EOS M280 Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) system was instrumental in achieving the direct manufacturing of the bio-compatible titanium implant. The EOS P385 system was used to manufacture the pre-operation planning model as well as the cutting jig.The process chain followed to complete this case study will be discussed showing how this intervention improved the quality of life of a SA patient. Furthermore, the proposed paper and presentation will discuss the post-operation review of the patient showing the impact AM had in accelerating patient-specific implant manufacturing. The authors seek to claim a progressed level of maturity in the proposed manufacturing value chain. The claim is based on the successful completion of the analysis and synthesis of the problem , the validated proof-of-concept of the manufacturing process and the in-vivo implementation of the final product.
- ItemDevelopment of chemical-based reference standards for rooibos and honeybush aroma lexicons(Elsevier, 2019) Du Preez, B. V. P.; De Beer, D.; Moelich, E. I.; Muller, M.; Joubert, E.The honeybush sensory wheel was revised, using a large sample set (n = 585) comprising of the major commercial Cyclopia species, i.e. C. intermedia, C. subternata and C. genistoides. Only positive and negative aroma attributes were included in the wheel. Chemicals were identified to serve as reference standards for the honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) lexicon. Similarly, chemical-based reference standards were identified for the rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) lexicon. From a comprehensive literature search and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses, chemicals were screened by an expert panel for their suitability in terms of typicality of the target aroma. Each chemical was evaluated in a ‘base tea’ and compared to a specific ‘reference tea’ exhibiting a high intensity of the target aroma. A total of 30 and 44 chemicals for rooibos and honeybush, respectively, were selected for validation by a trained panel. Descriptive sensory analysis was conducted to assign typicality and intensity scores for each chemical representing a target aroma attribute. Several chemicals were identified as suitable reference standards for the following aroma notes: isophorone (‘rooibos-woody’), maltyl isobutyrate (‘caramel’), cis-3-hexenol (‘green grass’), 4-oxoisophorone (‘seaweed’) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (‘musty/mouldy’) for rooibos; and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran (‘woody’), levulinic acid (‘fynbos-sweet’), maltyl isobutyrate (‘caramel’), and 2-acetylpyrrole (‘nutty’) for honeybush.
- ItemDivide and conquer may not be the optimal approach to retain the desirable estrogenic attributes of the cyclopia nutraceutical extract, SM6Met(Public Library of Science, 2015) Mortimer, M.; Visser, K.; De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Louw, A.The genus Cyclopia, an indigenous South African fynbos plant used to prepare honeybush tea, contains phytoestrogenic compounds. An extract from C. subternata, SM6Met, displays three desirable estrogenic attributes for future development of a phytoestrogenic nutraceutical, namely, ERα antagonism, ERβ agonism, and also antagonism of E2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Activity-guided fractionation of SM6Met was used in an attempt to isolate and identify compounds conferring the desirable estrogenic profile to SM6Met. Initial liquid-liquid fractionation of SM6Met yielded a polar fraction (PF) and a non-polar fraction (NPF), with the desirable estrogenic attributes retained in the NPF. Subsequent high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) fractionation of the NPF yielded three fractions (F1-F3). Interestingly, the fractions revealed separation of the previously demonstrated positive estrogenic attributes of the NPF into separate fractions, with F1 and F2 acting as ERα antagonists, only F2 inducing antagonism of E2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and only F3 retaining robust ERβ agonist activity. In terms of major polyphenols, quantitative HPLC and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that HPCCC fractionation resulted in a divergence of polyphenolic classes, with F1 emerging as the dihydrochalcone-rich fraction and F2 as the flavanone- and benzophenone-rich fraction, while the xanthones, flavones and phenolic acids were retained in F3. F3 was re-engineered into F3R by reassembling the major polyphenols identified in the fraction. F3R could, however, not replicate the effect of F3. In conclusion, although activity-guided fractionation results suggest that retention of all the desirable estrogenic attributes of the original SM6Met in one fraction is not an attainable goal, fractionation is a useful tool to enhance specific desirable estrogenic attributes.
- ItemEffect of oxygenation during maturation on phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity, colour and sensory quality of pinotage wine(SASEV, 2008-10) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Manley, M.The effect of oxygenation on the phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), colour and sensory quality was investigated during the maturation of Pinotage wines. Oxygenation was carried out in discrete monthly doses at two oxygen dosages (2.5 and 5.0 mg O2/L/month) for zero, two, four and six months. Oxygenation at the lower dosage for two months had beneficial effects on the colour and sensory quality of Pinotage wine. The higher oxygen dosage (all times) and longer times (all dosages) had a substantial detrimental effect on the overall sensory quality of the wine. A decrease in the TAC of the wine was observed for all the treatment combinations, despite increased concentrations of gallic acid. During the following harvest, a modified oxygenation treatment, entailing 1.0 mg O2/L in discrete doses every two weeks for two months, was tested. It had little effect on the wine phenolic composition and was not detrimental to the TAC of the wine. The modified oxygenation protocol significantly reduced the berry/ plum intensity of the Pinotage wine without negatively affecting the overall sensory quality. Oxygen addition on a continuous basis may also be less detrimental to the TAC of the wine and provide improved sensory quality.
- ItemMaceration before and during fermentation : effect on pinotage wine phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity and objective colour parameters(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2006) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Manley, M.Low-temperature maceration treatments (1, 2 and 4 days at 10 and 15°C) before fermentation and juice/skin mixing treatments (punching-down, pumping-over and rotor action every hour and every 3 hours) during fermentation were investigated in terms of their effects on Pinotage wine phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and colour over three vintages (2000 to 2002). Results for pre-fermentation maceration were not consistent between vintages. Very few significant differences in the phenolic content, TAC and objective colour parameters were observed between the control wines and wines subjected to different pre-fermentation maceration treatments. Pre-fermentation maceration, especially at 15°C, resulted in wines with increased vitisin A content. Improvement of wine quality when using pre-fermentation maceration treatments at 10°C was noted previously, while no detrimental effect on the wine TAC was observed. The pumping-over treatment yielded wines with lower TAC and phenol content, as well as less favourable objective colour values, indicating that the punching-down or rotor treatment would be preferred. Although mixing at hourly intervals yielded a higher content of some phenolic compounds compared to the 3-hour interval mixing, mixing frequency did not affect the TAC of the wine. The objective colour parameters, h* and b*, were slightly lower at the higher mixing frequency in 2002 indicating a shift in the direction of a magenta hue.
- ItemPhenolic compounds : a review of their possible role as in vivo antioxidants of wine(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2002) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Gelderblom, W. C. A.; Manley, M.Phenolic compounds are a large and complex group of chemical constituents found in red and white wines which not only affect their quality, but also contribute to their beneficial health effects. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are important in determining their role as protective agents against free radical-mediated disease processes. This review discusses the principles of oxidative stress and the resultant cellular damage caused by lipid peroxidation in vivo. Different groups of wine phenolic compounds are detailed, with specific reference to their in vitro antioxidant activity and their relative potency as free radical scavengers. The absorption and bioavailability of phenolic compounds from dietary sources is discussed.
- ItemSouth African herbal teas : Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides - a review(Elsevier, 2008-10) Joubert, E.; Gelderblom, W. C. A.; Louw, Ann; De Beer, D.Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybushwas used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary tuberculosis. Traditional medicinal uses of Athrixia phylicoides DC., or bush tea, another indigenous South African plant with very limited localised use as herbal tea, include treatment of boils, acne, infected wounds and infected throats. Currently rooibos and honeybush are produced for the herbal tea market, while bush tea has potential for commercialisation. A summary of the historical and modern uses, botany, distribution, industry and chemical composition of these herbal teas is presented. A comprehensive discussion of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo biological properties, required to expand their applications as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products, is included, with the mainemphasis on rooibos. Future research needs include more comprehensive chemical characterisation of extracts, identification of marker compounds for extract standardisation and quality control, bioavailability and identification of bio-markers of dietary exposure, investigation of possible herb–drug interactions and plant improvement with regards to composition and bioactivity.