Browsing by Author "Cohen, Karen"
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- ItemAdult medical emergency unit presentations due to adverse drug reactions in a setting of high HIV prevalence(Elsevier, 2021) Mouton, Johannes P.; Jobanputra, Nicole; Njuguna, Christine; Gunter, Hannah; Stewart, Annemie; Mehta, Ushma; Lahri, Saad; Court, Richard; Igumbor, Ehimario; Maartens, Gary; Cohen, KarenIntroduction: South Africa has the world’s largest antiretroviral treatment programme, which may contribute to the adverse drug reaction (ADR) burden. We aimed to determine the proportion of adult non-trauma emergency unit (EU) presentations attributable to ADRs and to characterise ADR-related EU presentations, stratified according to HIV status, to determine the contribution of drugs used in management of HIV and its complications to ADR-related EU presentations, and identify factors associated with ADR-related EU presentation. Methods: We conducted a retrospective folder review on a random 1.7% sample of presentations over a 12-month period in 2014/2015 to the EUs of two hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. We identified potential ADRs with the help of a trigger tool. A multidisciplinary panel assessed potential ADRs for causality, severity, and preventability. Results: We included 1010 EU presentations and assessed 80/1010 (7.9%) as ADR-related, including 20/239 (8.4%) presentations among HIV-positive attendees. Among HIV-positive EU attendees with ADRs 17/20 (85%) were admitted, versus 22/60 (37%) of HIV-negative/unknown EU attendees. Only 5/21 (24%) ADRs in HIVpositive EU attendees were preventable, versus 24/63 (38%) in HIV-negative/unknown EU attendees. On multivariate analysis, only increasing drug count was associated with ADR-related EU presentation (adjusted odds ratio 1.10 per additional drug, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.18), adjusted for age, sex, HIV status, comorbidity, and hospital. Conclusions: ADRs caused a significant proportion of EU presentations, similar to findings from other resourcelimited settings. The spectrum of ADR manifestations in our EUs reflects South Africa’s colliding epidemics of infectious and non-communicable diseases. ADRs among HIV-positive EU attendees were more severe and less likely to be preventable.
- ItemA comparison of self-report and antiretroviral detection to inform estimates of antiretroviral therapy coverage, viral load suppression and HIV incidence in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa(BioMed Central, 2017-09-29) Huerga, Helena; Shiferie, Fisseha; Grebe, Eduard; Giuliani, Ruggero; Farhat, Jihane B.; Van-Cutsem, Gilles; Cohen, KarenAbstract Background Accurately identifying individuals who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to determine ART coverage and proportion on ART who are virally suppressed. ART is also included in recent infection testing algorithms used to estimate incidence. We compared estimates of ART coverage, viral load suppression rates and HIV incidence using ART self-report and detection of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and we identified factors associated with discordance between the methods. Methods Cross-sectional population-based survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Individuals 15–59 years were eligible. Interviews included questions about ARV use. Rapid HIV testing was performed at the participants’ home. Blood specimens were collected for ARV detection, LAg-Avidity HIV incidence testing and viral load quantification in HIV-positive individuals. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify socio-demographic covariates associated with discordance between self-reported ART and ARV detection. Results Of the 5649 individuals surveyed, 1423 were HIV-positive. Median age was 34 years and 76.3% were women. ART coverage was estimated at 51.4% (95%CI:48.5–54.3), 53.1% (95%CI:50.2–55.9) and 56.1% (95%CI:53.5–58.8) using self-reported ART, ARV detection and both methods combined (classified as ART exposed if ARV detected and/or ART reported) respectively. ART coverage estimates using the 3 methods were fairly similar within sex and age categories except in individuals aged 15–19 years: 33.3% (95%CI:23.3–45.2), 33.8% (95%CI:23.9–45.4%) and 44.3% (95%CI:39.3–46.7) using self-reported ART, ARV detection and both methods combined. Viral suppression below 1000cp/mL in individuals on ART was estimated at 89.8% (95%CI:87.3–91.9), 93.1% (95%CI:91.0–94.8) and 88.7% (95%CI:86.2–90.7) using self-reported ART, ARV detection and both methods combined respectively. HIV incidence was estimated at 1.4 (95%CI:0.8–2.0) new cases/100 person-years when employing no measure of ARV use, 1.1/100PY (95%CI:0.6–1.7) using self-reported ART, and 1.2/100PY (95%CI:0.7–1.7) using ARV detection. In multivariate analyses, individuals aged 15–19 years had a higher risk of discordance on measures of ARV exposure (aOR:9.4; 95%CI:3.9–22.8), while migrants had a lower risk (aOR:0.3; 95%CI:0.1–0.6). Conclusions In KwaZulu-Natal, the method of identifying ARV use had little impact on estimates of ART coverage, viral suppression rate and HIV incidence. However, discordant results were more common in younger individuals. This may skew estimates of ART coverage and viral suppression, particularly in adolescent surveys.
- ItemDetectable HIV-1 in semen in individuals with very low blood viral loads(BioMed Central, 2020-03-05) Kariuki, Samuel Mundia; Selhorst, Philippe; Norman, Jennifer; Cohen, Karen; Rebe, Kevin; Williamson, Carolyn; Dorfman, Jeffrey RBackground: Several reports indicate that a portion (5–10%) of men living with HIV-1 intermittently shed HIV-1 RNA into seminal plasma while on long term effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is highly suggestive of an HIV-1 reservoir in the male genital tract. However, the status of this reservoir in men living with HIV-1 who are not under treatment is underexplored and has implications for understanding the origins and evolution of the reservoir. Finding: Forty-three HIV-1 positive, antiretroviral therapy naïve study participants attending a men’s health clinic were studied. Semen viral loads and blood viral loads were generally correlated, with semen viral loads generally detected in individuals with blood viral loads > 10,000 cp/ml. However, we found 1 individual with undetectable viral loads (<20cp/ml) and 2 individuals with very low blood viral load (97 and 333cp/ml), but with detectable HIV-1 in semen (485–1157 copies/ semen sample). Blood viral loads in the first individual were undetectable when tested three times over the prior 5 years. Conclusions: Semen HIV-1 viral loads are usually related to blood viral loads, as we confirm. Nonetheless, this was not true in a substantial minority of individuals suggesting unexpectedly high levels of replication in the male genital tract in a few individuals, despite otherwise effective immune control. This may reflect establishment of a local reservoir of HIV-1 populations.
- ItemHow good are our guidelines? Four years of experience with the SAMJ’s AGREE II review of submitted clinical practice guideline(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2018) Kredo, Tamara; Wiseman, Roger; Gray, Andy; Parrish, Andy; Miot, Jacqui; Cohen, Karen; Jamaloodien, Khadija; Blockman, MarcThe South African Medical Journal (SAMJ) is an established source of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) serving the local healthcare community. CPGs link professional societies and clinicians by guiding best practice through the collation and interpretation of the best available evidence. Not only are CPGs important in standardising the quality of patient care, but they also assist with medicine selection and resource allocation decisions, adjudicating medicolegal claims, and promoting equity by influencing medicine access and health system organisation.