Browsing by Author "Coetzee, Jodi Anne"
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- ItemA study of the human security of North African economic migrants through a gender lens(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Coetzee, Jodi Anne; Gouws, Amanda; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Political Science.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Migration, the movement of people across various distances and through various means, has changed significantly in the current global era. Since 2010, migration has taken on a different, more irregular nature, as people are determined to improve their livelihoods, some being driven by desperate circumstances to do so. Migration has also become increasingly feminised. During migration, the human security of migrants is at risk and their vulnerability persists throughout migration. Human security is an issue that reaches far beyond the individual, as human security issues shape national issues. It would be ignorant to assume that the two are mutually exclusive, as the influx of migrants to Europe in the post-Arab Spring context has illustrated. This thesis employs a gender lens to understand the nature of human security issues that economic migrants, who migrate from North Africa to Europe, experience. By exploring the push and pull factors of migration, the thesis provided an overview of the human security of migrants pre-migration. Conflict in North African and modern-day slavery largely drive migration from North Africa to Europe and exacerbate the human insecurity of migrants. Economic opportunity has been identified as the most significant pull factor for migration to Europe. By analysing the responses of Italy and, to a lesser degree, France, to migrants, the thesis produced insights into the human security of migrants in Europe. The differences between the experiences of men and women migrants were also considered. Using feminist security theory and a human security framework, this thesis maintains that security on the ground is important, perhaps more so than high politics. Valuable insights were provided on how Italy and France have managed migration and the impact of this on how citizens perceive and receive migrants. Central to the study was the focus on the securitisation of state responses to irregular migration, which include measures like border control, search and rescue operations, returns, resettlement and relocation, the closure of ports and refusals to disembark, the Hotspot Approach and detention. From these, successes and shortcomings have been identified, illustrating the nature of state protection to non-citizens. The human insecurity of migrants has been compounded by the lack of provisions, including medical attention and safety provisions, and the unique threats to women migrants. Although men and women migrants face similar risks and experience similar challenges during migration, women remain more susceptible to gender based violence and sexual exploitation and are, therefore, more vulnerable than their counterparts.