Browsing by Author "Buica, A. S."
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- ItemDetermining the impact of industrial wine yeast strains on organic acid production under white and red wine-like fermentation conditions(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2015) Chidi, B. S.; Rossouw, D.; Buica, A. S.; Bauer, FlorianOrganic acids are a major contributor to wine flavour and aroma. In the past, the scientific focus has mostly been on organic acids derived from grapes or on the transformation of malic acid to lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria, since these acids contribute significantly to the final total acidity of wine. However, the organic acid concentration and composition also change significantly during alcoholic fermentation, yet only limited information regarding the impact of different yeast strains on these changes has been published. Here we report on changes in organic acid (malic, tartaric, citric, succinic, acetic and pyruvic) composition during fermentation by five widely used industrial wine yeast strains in a synthetic grape must (MS300) reflecting two very different, but both wine-like, fermentation conditions. Samples were obtained from three physiological stages during fermentation, namely the exponential growth phase (day 2), early stationary phase (day 5) and late stationary phase (day 14). These different stages were selected to provide more information on acid evolution throughout fermentation, as well as on the impact of nutritional and environmental conditions during aerobic and anaerobic fermentation. Among other observations, some strains (such as VIN13 and 285) were shown to be generally higher producers of most acids in white and/ or red wine fermentation settings, while other strains (such as DV10) were generally lower acid producers. The data clearly demonstrate that different strains have different acid consumption and production patterns, and this presents a first step towards enabling winemakers to appropriately select strains for acid management during fermentation.
- ItemThe effect of grape temperature at pressing on phenolic extraction and evolution in Méthode Cap Classique wines throughout winemaking(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Mafata, M.; Buica, A. S.; Du Toit, W. J.; Van Jaarsveld, F. P.Maintaining the chemical composition of a wine is essential for the wine industry. Although the sugar-acid balance of a wine is of primary sensory importance, individual acids and oenological parameters are equally important. The main focus of this study was to investigate the impact of grape temperature at harvest, on the oenological volatile acidity (VA), titratable acidity (TA), pH and alcohol levels and organic acid (citric, malic, pyruvic and succinic) characteristics of Méthode Cap Classique (MCC) wines during winemaking, produced from grape cultivars obtained from two regions. Chardonnay and Pinot noir grapes were obtained from Robertson (warmer) and Elgin (cooler) regions and were subjected to different temperature treatments, i.e. 0, 10, 25 and 30oC before further processing, including pressing, primary fermentation, blending, tirage, secondary fermentation, riddling and disgorging. Grape temperature was mostly responsible for a significantly higher pH of Robertson (0 and 10ºC) and lower pH (0ºC) of Elgin post-tirage wines. Chardonnay base wines from both regions that were vinified from grapes at lower temperatures (0 and 10oC) were richer in malic- and succinic acid, while Pinot noir wines from both regions were characterised by higher malic-, citric- and pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid was only detected after the secondary fermentations in wines from both regions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the influence of grape temperature on the oenological and organic acid characteristics of MCC wines in different regions, and throughout different production stages.
- ItemThe effect of grape temperature on the sensory perception of Méthode Cap Classique wines(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2017) Mafata, M.; Buica, A. S.; Du Toit, W.; Panzeri, V.; Van Jaarsveld, F. P.The production process of South African bottle-fermented sparkling wine, the Méthode Cap Classique (MCC), follows the traditional French method (méthode champenoise), although each cellar has its own unique additions to the method. South African winemakers use different techniques and blends to achieve their award-winning MCCs, but there have not been many scientific investigations of the science behind these wines. This project is one of the first scientific studies on MCC. MCC wines were made using Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grapes harvested over two vintages (2014 and 2015) from two regions (Robertson and Darling) and stored at 0°C, 10°C, 25°C and 30°C before processing. The study was aimed at investigating the effect of grape storage temperature on the sensory characteristics of MCCs. The aroma and taste of the final nine-month old MCCs were evaluated, with each region analysed separately. The study showed a grouping of the MCCs according to temperature treatments for both vintages. There were vintage differences in terms of the attributes cited and the frequency of citations. Based on the frequency of citation, the MCCs made 2014 from grapes stored at 0°C and 10°C were described by the judges as having a fruity, fresh and crisp aroma, whilst those made from grapes stored at 25°C and 30°C were described as having oxidised fruit, volatile acidity and solvent-like aromas. The judges perceived less oxidation and volatile acidity (VA) (in terms of the frequency of citation) in the aroma of the 2015 MCCs, although treatments at higher temperatures were still associated with less desirable attributes compared to treatments at lower temperature. This study shown that the temperature of the grape at the time of processing has a significant effect on the aroma of MCCs aged nine months, and not so much of an effect on the taste.
- ItemEvaluation of South African chenin blanc wines made from six different trellising systems using a chemical and sensorial approach(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2020) Panzeri, V.; Ipinge, H. N.; Buica, A. S.There are many ways of manipulating the components of grape berries and one of these is the implementation of a specific trellising system. This will affect light exposure in the bunch zone, air flow through the canopy, crop load, etc., and consequently the primary metabolites that contribute to the production of secondary compounds in wine. The aim of the present study was to characterise the grape musts and wines of Chenin blanc made from grapes of different trellising systems, using chemical fingerprinting of the samples and the check-all-that-apply method, combined with a quality scoring test. The results indicate that, while the wines could not be separated according to treatment from an aroma point of view, the grapes produced by different trellis systems resulted in wines characterised by differences in taste and mouthfeel. The present study shows that trellising systems can influence amino acids, yeast assimilable nitrogen, phenolic content and aroma compounds, as well as sensory characteristics. In this case study, wine quality was not affected by the trellising systems, with one exception. Fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry proved to be a successful tool to separate the samples according to the systems.
- ItemThe impact of different tannin to anthocyanin ratios and of oxygen on the phenolic polymerisation over time in a wine-like solution(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2019) Garrido-Banuelos, G.; Buica, A. S.; Sharp, E.; De Villiers, A.; Du Toit, W. J.Colour and phenolic stability during ageing are influenced by the levels of distinct classes of phenolics in young red wines. The ratios between different classes of phenolic compounds also determine the colour and phenolic development of red wines. The present study evaluated the impact of forced oxidation on different anthocyanin/tannin (A/T) extracts and its consequent effect on the colour and phenolic evolution over time. The results showed that higher contents of seed tannins could enhance phenolic polymer formation, especially in the presence of oxygen. The addition of oxygen seemed to favour certain polymerisation reactions between tannins, leading to higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins in solution. A slower oxygen consumption was also observed as the phenolic composition of the wine-like extract evolved over time.
- ItemThe impact of smoke from vegetation fires on sensory characteristics of cabernet sauvignon wines made from affected grapes(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2016-01) De Vries, C. J.; Buica, A. S.; Brand, J.; McKay, M.The increased incidence of vegetation fires near vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa has led to growing concern over smoke taint in wine made from affected grapes. This study focused on the sensory properties of wines made from grapes that have been exposed to bushfire smoke. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (ten days’ post-véraison) were exposed to a single, hour-long treatment with smoke from burning fynbos under controlled conditions. The grapes were allowed to ripen and wines were then produced. Descriptive analysis of the wines was done for aroma and taste attributes. The results of the investigation show that the exposure of grapes to smoke during ripening led to sensory differences between wines made from different treatments, and that wines made from smoke-exposed grapes were perceived as having ‘burnt’, ‘smoky’ aromas and an ‘ashy’ aftertaste. Despite levels of free volatile phenols (VPs) being below or close to odour threshold levels for individual phenols, their combination led to a perception of the socalled ‘burnt rubber’ taint perceived in some South African red wines.
- ItemInteraction effects of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), linalool and ethyl hexanoate on the aromatic profile of South African dry Chenin Blanc wine by descriptive analysis (DA)(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Wilson, C.; Brand, J.; Du Toit, W.; Buica, A. S.Interaction studies are some of the most interesting sensory experiments that highlight the effect of composition on wine perception. The use of single compounds, viz. an ester (ethyl hexanoate), a terpene (linalool) and a thiol (3-mercaptohexanol, 3MH), which have previously been shown to be representative of Chenin Blanc wines, resulted in typical descriptors for these compounds, such as ‘apple, ‘floral’ and ‘guava’ respectively. Interaction effects were observed between the compounds, and these were reflected in both the nature and the level of attributes generated. Additionally, interaction effects between the compounds (singles and combinations) and the wine matrix indicated that the latter plays an important role in the perception of wine aromas. The use of a dearomatised neutral wine base added an extra dimension to this study, which usually is done in a simpler matrix, such as a model wine.
- ItemInvestigating the concept of South African old vine Chenin blanc(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2020) Mafata, M.; Brand, J.; Panzeri, V.; Buica, A. S.Although South African vineyards are still young by European standards, there is a belief in the industry that vines aged 35 or more years produce grapes and wines with specific characteristics (“old vine wines”). The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of the concept of old vine Chenin blanc wines using a typicality rating and sorting tasks. Chenin blanc wines were made from grapes harvested from vines aged five to 45 years old. Winemaking was standardised, with no wood contact. Typicality rating and sorting tasks were performed on young (first-stage) and two-year bottle-aged (second-stage) wines. Principal component analysis (PCA) on rating data demonstrated judge consensus, but no correlation was found between vine age and typicality rating. Sorting results were submitted to agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) performed on the correspondence analysis (CA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) results for grouping and attributes resulting from the sorting task. The clusters were different for the young wines and two-year bottle-aged wines. The verbal aspect of the sorting demonstrated the judges’ agreement on the concept of old vine Chenin blanc, shown by the annotation of the old vine group as ‘complex’, ‘balance’, ‘rich’ and ‘good mouthfeel’. However, because the judges did not sort the wines according to vine age, the perceptual aspect of the concept could not be confirmed, its features could not be tested further, and the sensory space could not be built.
- ItemInvestigation of thiol levels in young commercial South African Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc wines using propiolate derivatization and GC-MS/MS(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Coetzee, C.; Schulze, A.; Mokwena, L.; Du Toit, W. J.; Buica, A. S.In this work, the ethyl propiolate method for analysing thiols in white wine by GC-MS, originally proposed by Herbst-Johnstone et al.) (2013), has been adapted to GC-MS/MS and has been validated. The method performance has shown improvement in terms of sensitivity (limit of detection, LOD) and of the number of compounds measured. In addition to 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), the adapted method can also measure 2-furanmethanethiol (FMT) and makes use of a commercially-available internal standard (IS), 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol (4M2M2B, IS). The proposed method was applied to determine thiol levels in young commercial South African Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc wines. The samples (n=20 for each cultivar) were chosen according to a high frequency of the typical descriptors associated with this class of impact compounds. 3MH was found at 178-904 ng/L and 99-1124 ng/L, and 3MHA at 23-151 ng/L and 5-253 ng/L in Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc respectively. 4MMP was present in Sauvignon Blanc in concentrations up to 21.9 ng/L, but in none of the Chenin Blanc samples.
- ItemIs there a link between coffee aroma and the level of furanmethanethiol (FMT) in pinotage wines(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2020) Garrido-Banuelos, G.; Buica, A. S.Over the years, Pinotage has found its way into the South African and international market. Producers have used the flavour potential of this “original” South African grape to produce different wine styles, one of them being the so-called “coffee-style Pinotage”. The current study aims to explain the impact of furanmethanethiol (FMT) on the characteristic coffee aroma of these coffee-style wines. Chemical and sensory evaluation, as well as data mining of the technical information available, was performed. Not all wines marketed as “coffee Pinotage” showed a high “coffee” rating. However, the results showed a good correlation between the aroma perception and FMT concentrations (R2 = 0.81). However, RV coefficients were low when comparing the coffee rating with the information provided on both the front and the back label, which shows that, in some cases, the use of the “coffee Pinotage” term was rather part of the marketing strategy.
- ItemResearch note: the use of SO2 to bind acetaldehyde in wine : sensory implications(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2018) Coetzee, C.; Buica, A. S.; Du Toit, W. J.It is thought that the formation of hydroxysulphonate when sulphur dioxide is added to wine containing free acetaldehyde negates the sensory impact of the latter compound, but little research has been done on this. Descriptive analyses were employed using a trained sensory panel to assess the sensory effect of sulphur dioxide and acetaldehyde as single compounds and in combination in model wine. The addition of acetaldehyde or sulphur dioxide as singular compounds led to large increase in especially the green apple or sulphur descriptors respectively. When these two compounds were added in equimolar concentrations, the green apple description decreased drastically; however, a prominent sulphur description was still noted. It thus seems that hydroxysulphonate also has a sulphur-like aroma. The hydroxysulphonate did not influence the perception of a prominent ester, isoamyl acetate, in model wine. A low pH influences the perception of sulphur when sulphur dioxide is present on its own, but this is not the case with hydroxysulphonate. The implications of these results for wine production are discussed further.