Browsing by Author "Bugan, Richard D. H."
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- ItemModeling and regulating hydrosalinity dynamics in the Sandspruit river catchment (Western Cape)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Bugan, Richard D. H.; De Clercq, W. P.; Jovanovic, N.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Soil Science.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Bugan, R.D.H. Modelling and regulating hydrosalinity dynamics in the Sandspruit River catchment (Western Cape). PhD dissertation, Stellenbosch University. The presence and impacts of dryland salinity are increasingly become evident in the semi-arid Western Cape. This may have serious consequences for a region which has already been classified as water scarce. This dissertation is a first attempt at providing a methodology for regulating the hydrosalinity dynamics in a catchment affected by dryland salinity, i.e. the Sandspruit catchment, through the use of a distributed hydrological model. It documents the entire hydrological modelling process, i.e. the progression from data collection to model application. A review of previous work has revealed that salinisation is a result of land use change from perennial indigenous deep rooted vegetation to annual shallow rooted cropping systems. This has altered the water and salinity dynamics in the catchment resulting in the mobilisation of stored salts and subsequently the salinisation of land and water resources. The identification of dryland salinity mitigation measures requires thorough knowledge of the water and salinity dynamics of the study area. A detailed water balance and conceptual flow model was calculated and developed for the Sandspruit catchment. The annual streamflow and precipitation ranged between 0.026 mm a-1 - 75.401 mm a-1 and 351 and 655 mm a-1 (averaging at 473 mm a- 1), respectively. Evapotranspiration was found to be the dominant component of the water balance, as it comprises, on average, 94% of precipitation. Streamflow is interpreted to be driven by quickflow, i.e. overland flow and interflow, with minimal contribution from groundwater. Quantification of the catchment scale salinity fluxes indicated the Sandspruit catchment is in a state of salt depletion, i.e. salt output exceeds salt input. The total salt input to and output from the Sandspruit catchment ranged between 2 261 - 3 684 t Catchment-1 and 12 671 t a-1 - 21 409 t a-1, respectively. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of salt storage is essential for identifying target areas to implement mitigation measures. A correlation between the salinity of sediment samples collected during borehole drilling and the groundwater EC (r2 = 0.75) allowed for the point data of salt storage to be interpolated. Interpolated salt storage ranged between 3 t ha-1 and 674 t ha-1, exhibiting generally increasing storage with decreasing ground elevation. The quantified water and salinity fluxes formed the basis for the application of the JAMS/J2000-NaCl hydrological model in the Sandspruit catchment. The model was able to adequately simulate the hydrology of the catchment, exhibiting a daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.61. The simulated and observed salt outputs exhibited discrepancies at daily scale but were comparable at an annual scale. Recharge control, through the introduction of deep rooted perennial species, has been identified as the dominant measure to mitigate the impacts of dryland salinity. The effect of various land use change scenarios on the catchment hydrosalinity balance was evaluated with the JAMS/J2000-NaCl model. The simulated hydrosalinity balance exhibited sensitivity to land use change, with rooting depth being the main factor, and the spatial distribution of vegetation. Revegetation with Mixed forests, Evergreen forests and Range Brush were most effective in reducing salt leaching, when the “salinity hotspots” were targeted for re-vegetation (Scenario 3). This re-vegetation strategy resulted in an almost 50% reduction in catchment salt output. Overall, the results of the scenario simulations provided evidence for the consideration of re-vegetation strategies as a dryland salinity mitigation measure in the Sandspruit catchment. The importance of a targeted approach was also highlighted, i.e. mitigation measures should be implemented in areas which exhibit a high salt storage.
- ItemQuantifying the catchment salt balance : an important component of salinity assessments(Academy of Science of South Africa, 2015) Bugan, Richard D. H.; Jovanovic, Nebo Z.; De Clercq, Willem P.Soil and stream salinisation is a major environmental problem because it reduces the productivity of landscapes and degrades water quality. The Berg River (South Africa) has been exhibiting a trend of increasing salinity levels, which has primarily been attributed to the manifestation of dryland salinity. Dryland salinity occurs as a result of changes in land use (indigenous vegetation to agriculture and/or pasture), which cause a change in the water and salt balance of the landscape, consequently mobilising stored salts. The quantification of salinity fluxes at the catchment scale is an initial step and integral part of developing dryland salinity mitigation measures. The objective of this study was to quantify the salinity fluxes in the Sandspruit catchment, a tributary catchment of the Berg River. This included the quantification of salt storage, salt input (rainfall) and salt output (in run‑off). The results of the catchment salt balance computations indicate that the Sandspruit catchment is exporting salts, i.e. salt output exceeds salt input, which may have serious implications for downstream water users. Interpolated regolith salt storage generally exhibited increasing storage with decreasing ground elevation. A salinity hotspot was identified in the lower reaches of the catchment. It is envisaged that the data presented in this study may be used to classify the land according to the levels of salinity present; inform land management decisions; and provide a guide and framework for the prioritisation of areas for intervention and the choice and implementation of salinity management options. The data which were generated may also be used to calibrate hydrosalinity models.