Browsing by Author "Boulle, Andrew"
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- ItemAuditing chronic disease care : does it make a difference?(AOSIS Publishing, 2015-06) Essel, Vivien; Van Vuuren, Unita; De Sa, Angela; Govender, Srini; Murie, Katie; Schlemmer, Arina; Gunst, Colette; Namane, Mosedi; Boulle, Andrew; De Vries, ElmaBackground: An integrated audit tool was developed for five chronic diseases, namely diabetes, hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and epilepsy. Annual audits have been done in the Western Cape Metro district since 2009. The year 2012 was the first year that all six districts in South Africa’s Western Cape Province participated in the audit process. Aim: To determine whether clinical audits improve chronic disease care in health districts over time. Setting: Western Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: Internal audits were conducted of primary healthcare facility processes and equipment availability as well as a folder review of 10 folders per chronic condition per facility. Random systematic sampling was used to select the 10 folders for the folder review. Combined data for all facilities gave a provincial overview and allowed for comparison between districts. Analysis was done comparing districts that have been participating in the audit process from 2009 to 2010 (‘2012 old’) to districts that started auditing recently (‘2012 new’). Results: The number of facilities audited has steadily increased from 29 in 2009 to 129 in 2012. Improvements between different years have been modest, and the overall provincial average seemed worse in 2012 compared to 2011. However, there was an improvement in the ‘2012 old’ districts compared to the ‘2012 new’ districts for both the facility audit and the folder review, including for eight clinical indicators, with ‘2012 new’ districts being less likely to record clinical processes (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.21–0.31). Conclusion: These findings are an indication of the value of audits to improve care processes over the long term. It is hoped that this improvement will lead to improved patient outcomes.
- ItemA comparison of death recording by health centres and civil registration in South Africans receiving antiretroviral treatment(International AIDS Society, 2015-12-16) Johnson, Leigh F.; Dorrington, Rob E.; Laubscher, Ria; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Wood, Robin; Fox, Matthew P.; Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Prozesky, Hans; Tanser, Frank; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, AndrewIntroduction: There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID) numbers and provided data comparing the outcomes recorded in patient files and in the vital registration. Patients were excluded if they had missing/invalid IDs or had transferred to other ART programmes. Results: After exclusions, 91,548 patient records were included. Of deaths recorded in patients files after 2003, 94.0% (95% CI: 93.3 94.6%) were recorded by civil registration, with completeness being significantly higher in urban areas, older adults and females. Of deaths recorded by civil registration after 2003, only 35.0% (95% CI: 34.2 35.8%) were recorded in patient files, with this proportion dropping from 60% in 2004 2005 to 30% in 2010 and subsequent years. Recording of deaths in patient files was significantly higher in children and in locations within 50 km of the health centre. When the information from the two systems was combined, an estimated 96.2% of all deaths were recorded (93.5% in children and 96.2% in adults). Conclusions: South Africa’s civil registration system has achieved a high level of completeness in the recording of mortality. However, the fraction of deaths recorded by health centres is low and information from patient records is insufficient by itself to evaluate levels and predictors of ART patient mortality. Previously documented improvements in ART mortality over time may be biased if based only on data from patient records.
- ItemGender differences in survival among adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa : a multicentre cohort study(Public Library of Science, 2012-09-04) Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Garone, Daniela Belen; Giddy, Janet; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Lessells, Richard; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Wood, Robin; Johnson, Leigh F.; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew; Myer, LandonBackground: Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART. Methods and Findings: Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA). Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF), virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/μl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population. Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years), during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/μl, p <0.001), were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, p <0.001), and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, p < 0.001) and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22–1.41). After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28) but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86–1.25). Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing data on baseline HIV disease characteristics, and we did not observe directly mortality in HIV-negative populations where the participating cohorts were located. Conclusions: HIV-infected men have higher mortality on ART than women in South African programmes, but these differences are only partly explained by more advanced HIV disease at the time of ART initiation, differential LTF and subsequent mortality, and differences in responses to treatment. The observed differences in mortality on ART may be best explained by background differences in mortality between men and women in the South African population unrelated to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
- ItemHigh yield of culture-based diagnosis in a TB-endemic setting(BioMed Central, 2012-09) Demers, Anne-Marie; Verver, Suzanne; Boulle, Andrew; Warren, Robin; Van Helden, Paul; Behr, Marcel A.; Coetzee, DavidAbstract Background In most of the world, microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is limited to microscopy. Recent guidelines recommend culture-based diagnosis where feasible. Methods In order to evaluate the relative and absolute incremental diagnostic yield of culture-based diagnosis in a high-incidence community in Cape Town, South Africa, subjects evaluated for suspected TB had their samples processed for microscopy and culture over a 21 month period. Results For 2537 suspect episodes with 2 smears and 2 cultures done, 20.0% (508) had at least one positive smear and 29.9% (760) had at least one positive culture. One culture yielded 1.8 times more cases as 1 smear (relative yield), or an increase of 12.0% (absolute yield). Based on the latter value, the number of cultures needed to diagnose (NND) one extra case of TB was 8, compared to 19 if second specimens were submitted for microscopy. Conclusion In a high-burden setting, the introduction of culture can markedly increase TB diagnosis over microscopy. The concept of number needed to diagnose can help in comparing incremental yield of diagnosis methods. Although new promising diagnostic molecular methods are being implemented, TB culture is still the gold standard.
- ItemHIV viral load as an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in South Africa : collaborative analysis of cohort studies(Wiley Open Access, 2017) Fenner, Lukas; Atkinson, Andrew; Boulle, Andrew; Fox, Matthew P.; Prozesky, Hans; Zurcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Furrer, Hansjakob; Zwahlen, Marcel; Davies, Mary-Ann; Egger, MatthiasIntroduction: Chronic immune activation due to ongoing HIV replication may lead to impaired immune responses against opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). We studied the role of HIV replication as a risk factor for incident TB after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We included all HIV-positive adult patients ( 16 years) in care between 2000 and 2014 at three ART programmes in South Africa. Patients with previous TB were excluded. Missing CD4 cell counts and HIV-RNA viral loads at ART start (baseline) and during follow-up were imputed. We used parametric survival models to assess TB incidence (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) by CD4 cell and HIV-RNA levels, and estimated the rate ratios for TB by including age, sex, baseline viral loads, CD4 cell counts, and WHO clinical stage in the model. We also used Poisson general additive regression models with time-updated CD4 and HIV-RNA values, adjusting for age and sex. Results: We included 44,260 patients with a median follow-up time of 2.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.0–5.0); 3,819 incident TB cases were recorded (8.6%). At baseline, the median age was 34 years (IQR 28–41); 30,675 patients (69.3%) were female. The median CD4 cell count was 156 cells/μL (IQR 79–229) and the median HIV-RNA viral load 58,000 copies/mL (IQR 6,000–240,000). Overall TB incidence was 26.2/1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.3–27.0). Compared to the lowest viral load category (0–999 copies/mL), the adjusted rate ratio for TB was 1.41 (95% CI 1.15–1.75, p < 0.001) in the highest group (>10,000 copies/mL). Time-updated analyses for CD4/HIV-RNA confirmed the association of viral load with the risk for TB. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ongoing HIV replication is an important risk factor for TB, regardless of CD4 cell counts, and underline the importance of early ART start and retention on ART.
- ItemLife expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment : collaborative analysis of cohort studies(Public Library of Science, 2013-04-09) Johnson, Leigh F.; Mossong, Joel; Dorrington, Rob E.; Schomaker, Michael; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Keiser, Olivia; Fox, Matthew P.; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Belen Garone, Daniela; Cornell, Morna; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, AndrewBackground Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults. Methods and Findings Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2–30.2) at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3–10.8) at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0–39.7) and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3–15.3), respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1–46.0) if her baseline CD4 count was ≥200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2–33.0) if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%–20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations. Conclusions South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well.
- ItemLower birth weight-for-age and length-for-age z-scores in infants with in-utero HIV and ART exposure : a prospective study in Cape Town, South Africa(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-05-04) Nyemba, Dorothy C.; Kalk, Emma; Madlala, Hlengiwe P.; Malaba, Thokozile R.; Slogrove, Amy L.; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, Andrew; Myer, Landon; Powis, Kathleen MBackground: Successful scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has minimized infant HIV acquisition, and over 1 million infants are born HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), with an increasing proportion also exposed in utero to maternal ART. While benefits of ART in pregnancy outweigh risks, some studies have reported associations between in utero ART exposure and impaired fetal growth, highlighting the need to identify the safest ART regimens for use in pregnancy. Methods: We compared birth anthropometrics of infants who were HEU with those HIV-unexposed (HU) in Cape Town, South Africa. Pregnant women had gestational age assessed by ultrasound at enrolment. Women living with HIV were on ART (predominately tenofovir-emtricitabine-efavirenz) either prior to conception or initiated during pregnancy. Birth weights and lengths were converted to weight-for-age (WAZ) and length-for-age (LAZ) z-scores using Intergrowth-21st software. Linear regression was used to compare mean z-scores adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Results: Among 888 infants, 49% (n = 431) were HEU and 51% (n = 457) HU. Of 431 HEU infants, 62% (n = 268) were exposed to HIV and antiretrovirals (ARVs) from conception and 38% (n = 163) were exposed to ARVs during gestation but after conception (median fetal ARV exposure of 21 weeks [IQR; 17–26]). In univariable analysis, infants who were HEU had lower mean WAZ compared with HU [β = − 0.15 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): − 0.28, − 0.020)]. After adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, alcohol use, marital and employment status the effect remained [adjusted β − 0.14 (95%CI: − 0.28, − 0.01]. Similar differences were noted for mean LAZ in univariable [β − 0.20 (95%CI: − 0.42, − 0.01] but not multivariable analyses [adjusted β − 0.18 (95%CI: − 0.41, + 0.04] after adjusting for the same variables. Mean WAZ and LAZ did not vary by in utero ARV exposure duration among infants who were HEU. Conclusion: In a cohort with high prevalence of ART exposure in pregnancy, infants who were HEU had lower birth WAZ compared with those HU. Studies designed to identify the mechanisms and clinical significance of these disparities, and to establish the safest ART for use in pregnancy are urgently needed.
- ItemMonitoring the South African National Antiretroviral Treatment Programme, 2003-2007 : the IeDEA Southern Africa collaboration(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009-09) Cornell, Morne; Technau, Karl; Fairall, Lara; Wood, Robin; Moultrie, Harry; Van Cutsem, Gilles; Giddy, Janet; Mohapi, Lerato; Eley, Brian; MacPhail, Patrick; Prozesky, Hans; Rabie, Helena; Davies, Mary-Ann; Maxwell, Nicola; Boulle, AndrewObjectives. To introduce the combined South African cohorts of the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration as reflecting the South African national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme; to characterise patients accessing these services; and to describe changes in services and patients from 2003 to 2007. Design and setting. Multi-cohort study of 11 ART programmes in Gauteng, Western Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal. Subjects. Adults and children (<16 years old) who initiated ART with ≥3 antiretroviral drugs before 2008. Results. Most sites were offering free treatment to adults and children in the public sector, ranging from 264 to 17 835 patients per site. Among 45 383 adults and 6 198 children combined, median age (interquartile range) was 35.0 years (29.8-41.4) and 42.5 months (14.7-82.5), respectively. Of adults, 68% were female. The median CD4 cell count was 102 cells/μl (44-164) and was lower among males than females (86, 34-150 v. 110, 50-169, p<0.001). Median CD4% among children was 12% (7-17.7). Between 2003 and 2007, enrolment increased 11-fold in adults and 3-fold in children. Median CD4 count at enrolment increased for all adults (67-111 cells/μl, p<0.001) and for those in stage IV (39-89 cells/μl, p<0.001). Among children <5 years, baseline CD4% increased over time (11.5-16.0%, p<0.001). Conclusions. IeDEA-SA provides a unique opportunity to report on the national ART programme. The study describes dramatically increased enrolment over time. Late diagnosis and ART initiation, especially of men and children, need attention. Investment in sentinel sites will ensure good individual-level data while freeing most sites to continue with simplified reporting.
- ItemOutcomes of the South African national antiretroviral treatment programme for children : the IeDEA southern Africa collaboration(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009-10) Davies, Mary-Ann; Keiser, Olivia; Technau, Karl; Eley, Brian; Rabie, Helena; Van Cutsem, Gilles; Giddy, Janet; Wood, Robin; Boulle, Andrew; Egger, Matthias; Moultrie, HarryObjectives. To assess paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes and their associations from a collaborative cohort representing 20% of the South African national treatment programme. Design and setting. Multi-cohort study of 7 public sector paediatric ART programmes in Gauteng, Western Cape and. KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Subjects. ART-naïve children (?16 years) who commenced treatment with ≥3 antiretroviral drugs before March 2008. Outcome measures. Time to death or loss to follow-up were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations between baseline characteristics and mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models stratified by site. Immune status, virological suppression and growth were described in relation to duration of ART. Results. The median (interquartile range) age of 6 078 children with 9 368 child-years of follow-up was 43 (15 - 83) months, with 29% being <18 months. Most were severely ill at ART initiation. More than 75% of children were appropriately monitored at 6-monthly intervals with viral load suppression (<400 copies/ml) being 80% or above throughout 36 months of treatment. Mortality and retention in care at 3 years were 7.7% (95% confidence interval 7.0 - 8.6%) and 81.4% (80.1-82.6%), respectively. Together with young age, all markers of disease severity (low weight-for-age z-score, high viral load, severe immune suppression, stage 3/4 disease and anaemia) were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions. Dramatic clinical benefit for children accessing the national ART programme is demonstrated. Higher mortality in infants and those with advanced disease highlights the need for early diagnosis of HIV infection and commencement of ART.
- ItemSeasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-positive individuals in Southern Africa : analysis of cohort studies at antiretroviral treatment programmes(BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-01) Ballif, Marie; Zurcher, Kathrin; Reid, Stewart E.; Boulle, Andrew; Fox, Matthew P.; Prozesky, Hans W.; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, LukasObjectives Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa. Setting Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Participants We analysed data of 331 634 HIV-positive adults (>15 years), who initiated ART between January 2004 and December 2014. Primary outcome measure We calculated aggregated averages in monthly counts of PTB diagnoses and ART initiations. To account for time trends, we compared deviations of monthly event counts to yearly averages, and calculated correlation coefficients. We used multivariable regressions to assess associations between deviations of monthly ART initiation and PTB diagnosis counts from yearly averages, adjusted for monthly air temperatures and geographical latitude. As controls, we used Kaposi sarcoma and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) diagnoses. Results All programmes showed monthly variations in PTB diagnoses that paralleled fluctuations in ART initiations, with recurrent patterns across 2004–2014. The strongest drops in PTB diagnoses occurred in December, followed by April–May in Zimbabwe and South Africa. This corresponded to holiday seasons, when clinical activities are reduced. We observed little monthly variation in ART initiations and PTB diagnoses in Zambia. Correlation coefficients supported parallel trends in ART initiations and PTB diagnoses (correlation coefficient: 0.28, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.35, P<0.001). Monthly temperatures and latitude did not substantially change regression coefficients between ART initiations and PTB diagnoses. Trends in Kaposi sarcoma and EPTB diagnoses similarly followed changes in ART initiations throughout the year. Conclusions Monthly variations in PTB diagnosis at ART programmes in Southern Africa likely occurred regardless of seasonal variations in temperatures or latitude and reflected fluctuations in clinical activities and changes in health-seeking behaviour throughout the year, rather than climatic factors.
- ItemTwelve-year mortality in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in South Africa(Wiley Open Access, 2018) Cornell, Morna; Johnson, Leigh F.; Wood, Robin; Tanser, Frank; Fox, Matthew P.; Prozesky, Hans; Schomaker, Michael; Egger, Matthias; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, AndrewIntroduction: South Africa has the largest number of individuals living with HIV and the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme worldwide. In September 2016, ART eligibility was extended to all 7.1 million HIV-positive South Africans. To ensure that further expansion of services does not compromise quality of care, long-term outcomes must be monitored. Few studies have reported long-term mortality in resource-constrained settings, where mortality ascertainment is challenging. Combining site records with data linked to the national vital registration system, sites in the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa collaboration can identify >95% of deaths in patients with civil identification numbers (IDs). This study used linked data to explore long-term mortality and viral suppression among adults starting ART in South Africa. Methods: The study was a cohort analysis of routine data on adults with IDs starting ART 2004–2015 in five large ART cohorts. Mortality was estimated overall and by gender using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox’s proportional hazards regression. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by dividing observed numbers of deaths by numbers expected if patients had been HIV-negative. Viral suppression in patients with viral loads (VLs) in their last year of followup was the secondary outcome. Results: Among 72,812 adults followed for 350,376 person years (pyrs), the crude mortality rate was 3.08 (95% CI 3.02– 3.14)/100 pyrs. Patients were predominantly female (67%) and the percentage of men initiating ART did not increase. Cumulative mortality 12 years after ART initiation was 23.9% (33.4% male and 19.4% female). Mortality peaked in patients enrolling in 2007–2009 and was higher in men than women at all durations. Observed mortality rates were higher than HIVnegative mortality, decreasing with duration. By 48 months, observed mortality was close to that in the HIV-negative population, and SMRs were similar for all baseline CD4 strata. Three-quarters of patients had VLs in their last year, and 86% of these were virally suppressed. Conclusions: The South African ART programme has shown a remarkable ability to initiate and manage patients successfully over 12 years, despite rapid expansion. With further scale-up, testing and initiating men on ART must be a national priority.
- ItemWhere do HIV-infected adolescents go after transfer? – Tracking transition/transfer of HIV-infected adolescents using linkage of cohort data to a health information system platform(Wiley Open Access, 2017) Davies, Mary-Ann; Tsondai, Priscilla; Tiffin, Nicki; Eley, Brian; Rabie, Helena; Euvrard, Jonathan; Orrell, Catherine; Prozesky, Hans; Wood, Robin; Cogill, Dolphina; Haas, Andreas D.; Sohn, Annette H.; Boulle, AndrewIntroduction: To evaluate long-term outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents, it is important to identify ways of tracking outcomes after transfer to a different health facility. The Department of Health (DoH) in the Western Cape Province (WCP) of South Africa uses a single unique identifier for all patients across the health service platform. We examined adolescent outcomes after transfer by linking data from four International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) cohorts in the WCP with DoH data. Methods: We included adolescents on antiretroviral therapy who transferred out of their original cohort from 10 to 19 years of age between 2004 and 2014. The DoH conducted the linkage separately for each cohort and linked anonymized data were then combined. The primary outcome was successful transfer defined as having a patient record at a facility other than the original facility after the transfer date. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients retained, with HIV-RNA <400 copies/ml and CD4 > 500 cells/μl at 1, 2 and 3 years post-transfer. Results: Of 460 adolescents transferred out (53% female), 72% transferred at 10–14 years old, and 79% transferred out of tertiary facilities. Overall, 81% of patients transferred successfully at a median (interquartile range) of 56 (27–134) days following transfer date; 95% reached the transfer site <18 months after transfer out. Among those transferring successfully, the proportion retained decreased from 1 to 3 years post-transfer (90–84%). There was no significant difference between transfer and 1–3 years post-transfer in the proportion of retained adolescents with HIV-RNA <400 copies/ml and CD4 > 500 cells/μl except for HIV-RNA <400 copies/ml at 3 years (86% vs. 75%; p = 0.007). The proportion virologically suppressed and with CD4 > 500 cells/μl was significantly lower at 1 and 2 years post-transfer in those transferring at 15–19 vs. 10–14 years of age. Using laboratory data alone over-estimated time to successful transfer. Conclusions: Linking cohort data to health information system data allowed efficient assessment of post-transfer outcomes. Although >80% of adolescents transferred successfully with nearly 85% of them retained for 3 years post-transfer, the decline in the proportion virologically suppressed and poorer outcomes in older adolescents are concerns.