Browsing by Author "Botha, Matthys H."
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Results Per Page
- ItemExploring the feasibility of using mobile phones to improve the management of clients with cervical cancer precursor lesions(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2019-01-07) Moodley, Jennifer; Constant, Deborah; Botha, Matthys H.; Van der Merwe, Frederick H.; Edwards, Amanda; Momberg, MarietteBackground: Cancer screening programs hold much potential for reducing the cervical cancer disease burden in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of mobile health (mHealth) phone technology to improve management and follow-up of clients with cervical cancer precursor lesions. Methods: A sequential mixed methods design was employed for this study. Quantitative data was collected using a cross-sectional survey of 364 women eligible for a Pap smear at public sector health services in Cape Town, South Africa. Information was collected on socio-demographic status; cell phone ownership and patterns of use; knowledge of cervical cancer prevention; and interest in Pap smear results and appointment reminders via SMS-text messages. Descriptive statistics, crude bivariate comparisons and logistic regression models were employed to analyze survey results. Qualitative data was collected through 10 in-depth interviews with primary health care providers and managers involved in cervical cancer screening. Four focus group discussions with 27 women attending a tertiary level colposcopy clinic were also conducted. Themes related to loss of mobile phones, privacy and confidentiality, interest in receiving SMS-text messages, text language and clinic-based management of a SMS system are discussed. Thematic analyses of qualitative data complemented quantitative findings. Results: Phone ownership amongst surveyed women was 98% with phones mostly used for calls and short message service (SMS) functions. Over half (58%) of women reported loss/theft of mobile phones. Overall, there was interest in SMS interventions for receiving Pap smear results and appointment reminders. Reasons for interest, articulated by both providers and clients, included convenience, cost and time-saving benefits and benefits of not taking time off work. However, concerns were expressed around confidentiality of SMS messages, loss/theft of mobile phones, receiving negative results via SMS and accessibility/clarity of language used to convey messages. Responsibility for the management of a clinic-based SMS system was also raised. Conclusions: Results indicated interest and potential for mHealth interventions in improving follow-up and management of clients with abnormal Pap smears. Health system and privacy issues will need to be addressed for mHealth to achieve this potential. Next steps include piloting of specific SMS messages to test feasibility and acceptability in this setting.
- ItemPreliminary investigation of a new serum marker for ovarian cancer(Medpharm Publications, 2012) Botha, Matthys H.; Veenstra, Hanne; Van der Merwe, Wilhelm K.; Laeng, R. Hubert; Nevin, James; Van Wijk, Leon; Soeters, R.; Bird, Sue; Van Helden, Paul D.Objectives: The long-term survival rate of patients with carcinoma of the ovary is poor, because this condition is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. A reliable diagnostic and screening test is still lacking. Therefore, a serological test for a novel ovarian tumour antigen was developed and investigated in a clinical setting. This report describes this investigation, the aim of which was to provide data to decide whether the test warrants a further, large-scale trial. Methods: Serum collected from 25 patients with ovarian carcinoma, 24 healthy controls and 25 control patients with non-carcinomatous ovarian disorders was tested. The test utilises a monoclonal antibody, designated SMO47, to capture the tumour antigen and a normal form of the antigen from serum. Only the tumour antigen is detected by biotinylated Maakia amurensis lectin, which binds specifically to the sialic acid on the tumour antigen. Results: The sensitivity for the carcinoma patient group was 60% and the specificity for the control patient group was 76% when a cut-off value for 100% specificity in the healthy controls was used. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve was 0. 8200. CA125 tests were done on all serum, and the results compared graphically. The tumour antigen in the serum was very stable and did not seem to be affected by freezing or long storage at 4°C. Conclusions: The results of this first application of the new test are encouraging and warrant further investigation and testing of larger numbers of subjects to obtain more significant values for the sensitivity and specificity.
- ItemSchool-based human papillomavirus vaccination : an opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of screening(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015-11) Dreyer, Greta; Van der Merwe, Frederick H.; Botha, Matthys H.; Snyman, Leon C.; Constant, Deborah; Visser, Cathy; Harvey, JustinBackground. Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV vaccination provides an untested platform to distribute information that could possibly improve knowledge and screening coverage. Objective. To measure changes in knowledge and screening uptake when information and screening opportunities were provided to mothers of adolescent HPV vaccine recipients. Methods. During an HPV vaccine implementation project in the Western Cape (WC) and Gauteng Province (GP), South Africa, information about cervical cancer was provided to parents during a lecture, written information was distributed, and mothers were then invited to either screen at their clinic (WC) or use a self-screening kit (GP). A structured questionnaire was used to test cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices, comparing these before and after the project and between the two screening groups. Results. Complete data for both questionnaires were available for 777 of 906 recruited women. Initial knowledge was poor, but on retesting 6 months later, knowledge about symptoms (p<0.005), screening (p<0.005) and vaccination (p<0.05) improved significantly after the information session and school-based HPV vaccination. In the second questionnaire, women reported significantly more screening and the last reported screening test was more recent. This improvement was more favourable in GP than in the WC (41% v. 26% reporting screening in the past 12 months). Conclusion. These results demonstrate how adolescent HPV vaccine programmes can help to control cervical cancer among mothers by offering information and screening. It is important not to lose this opportunity to educate mothers and their daughters and offer effective methods to prevent cervical cancer in both generations.
- ItemThe Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project : acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination in a school-based programme in two provinces of South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Botha, Matthys H.; Van der Merwe, Frederick Haynes; Snyman, Leon C.; Dreyer, GretaBackground. The incidence of cervical cancer in South Africa (SA) remains high, and the current screening programme has had limited success. New approaches to prevention and screening tactics are needed. Objectives. To investigate acceptance of school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, as well as the information provided, methods of obtaining consent and assent, and completion rates achieved. Methods. Information on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was provided to 19 primary schools in Western Cape and Gauteng provinces participating in the study. Girls with parental consent and child assent were vaccinated during school hours at their schools. Results. A total of 3 465 girls were invited to receive HPV vaccine, of whom 2 046 provided written parental consent as well as child assent. At least one dose of vaccine was delivered to 2 030 girls (99.2% of the consented cohort), while a total of 1 782 girls received all three doses. Sufficient vaccination was achieved in 91.6% of the vaccinated cohort. Of all invited girls, 56.9% in Gauteng and 50.7% in the Western Cape were sufficiently vaccinated. Conclusion. This implementation project demonstrated that HPV vaccination is practical and safe in SA schools. Political and community acceptance was good, and positive attitudes towards vaccination were encountered. During the study, which mimicked a governmental vaccine roll-out programme, high completion rates were achieved in spite of several challenges encountered.
- ItemThe Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2) : linking cervical cancer screening to a two-dose HPV vaccination schedule in the South-West District of Tshwane, Gauteng, South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Snyman, Leon C.; Greta, Dreyer; Visser, Cathy; Botha, Matthys H.; Van der Merwe, Frederick H.Background. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a high prevalence in South Africa (SA), where screening is opportunistic. Primary prevention is now possible through HPV vaccination. In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. Objectives. To investigate the feasibility of linking HPV self-testing with a two-dose HPV vaccination schedule and to compare results with VACCS 1. Methods. The project was conducted in five schools in the South-West District of Tshwane, Gauteng, SA. Leaflet information on cervical cancer and screening was provided, with requests for consent and assent for a two-dose HPV vaccination of schoolgirls. Female caregivers were invited to take part in HPV self-screening. Results. Of 965 girls invited for vaccination, 519 (53.7%) had full consent and 518 (99.8%) received at least one vaccine dose. The invited uptake rate was 53.7% and 495 girls received both doses, giving a completion rate of 95.4% v. 82.6% in VACCS 1. Of 1 135 self-screen kits handed out, 560 (49.3%) were not returned. The mean age (standard deviation) of the 160 women who participated in self-screening was 38.7 (7.7) years. HPV testing was negative in 116 women (72.5%), 15 women (9.4%) tested positive for HPV 16 and/or 18, and 27 (16.9%) were positive for non-16/18 oncogenic HPV. Conclusion. Data from the VACCS projects suggest that school-based vaccine programmes can be successfully implemented. A two-dose schedule allowed for higher completion rates. Linking self-collected HPV screening to HPV vaccination is feasible, is a promising and viable screening strategy, and reached the appropriate age group for screening.
- ItemWomen's experiences with cervical cancer screening in a colposcopy referral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis(BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-1) Momberg, Mariette; Botha, Matthys H.; Van der Merwe, Frederick H.; Moodley, JenniferObjective: The aim of this study was to explore and understand women’s experience with cervical cancer screening and with the referral pathways for abnormal Papanicolau (Pap) smears. Design and setting: Focus group discussions were conducted with first time colposcopy clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital colposcopy clinic in Cape Town, South Africa during November 2014. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. Initial coding categories were drawn from the interview guide. Participants: 27 women participated in 4 focus group discussions. Results: Participants mean age was 34 years, most did not complete secondary level education and were unemployed. Negative community opinions relating to Pap smears and colposcopy referral might deter women from seeking treatment. Having a gynaecological symptom was the most commonly cited reason for having a Pap smear. Fear of having a HIV test performed at the same time as Pap smear and low encouragement from peers, were factors identified as potential access barriers. Participants commented on insufficient or lack of information from primary providers on referral to the colposcopy clinic and concerns and apprehension during waiting periods between receiving results and the colposcopy appointment were discussed. Conclusions: There is a strong and urgent need to improve current knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smears and the necessity and benefits of timely access to screening programmes, results and treatment. Strategies such as community health education programmes and mass media interventions could be employed to disseminate cervical cancer information and address negative community perceptions. Better training and support mechanisms to equip healthcare providers with the skills to convey cervical cancer information to women are needed. The use of short message service (SMS) to deliver Pap smear results and provide patients with more information should be considered to improve waiting times for results and alleviate apprehension during waiting periods.