Browsing by Author "Bazelet, Corinna S."
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- ItemAdapting the Dragonfly Biotic Index to a katydid (Tettigoniidae) rapid assessment technique : case study of a biodiversity hotspot, the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa(Pensoft Publishers, 2017) Thompson, Aileen C.; Bazelet, Corinna S.; Naskrecki, Piotr; Samways, Michael J.Global biodiversity faces many challenges, with the conservation of invertebrates among these. South Africa is megadiverse and has three global biodiversity hotspots. The country also employs two invertebrate-based rapid assessment techniques to evaluate habitat quality of freshwater ecosystems. While grasshoppers (Acrididae) are known indicators of terrestrial habitats, katydids (Tettigoniidae) could be as well. Here, we adapt a South African freshwater invertebrate-based rapid assessment method, the Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI), for the terrestrial katydid assemblage, and propose a new assessment approach using katydids: the Katydid Biotic Index (KBI). KBI assigns each katydid species a score based on a combination of: 1) IUCN Red List status, 2) geographic distribution, and 3) life history traits (which consist of mobility and trophic level). This means that the rarer, more localized, specialized and threatened katydid species receive the highest score, and the common, geographically widespread and Least Concern species the lowest. As a case study, we calculated KBI across one of South Africa’s global biodiversity hotspots, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR). We then correlated KBI/Site scores of individual ecosystems with their ecosystem threat scores. The CFR’s katydid assemblage did not differ significantly from that of the overall South African katydid assemblage in terms of its species traits, threat statuses, or distribution among tettigoniid subfamilies. Likewise, KBI/Site scores did not differ significantly among ecosystem threat statuses. This may be explained by the coarse spatial scale of this study or by the lack of specialization of the CFR katydid assemblage. Nevertheless, the KBI holds promise as it is a relatively simple and non-invasive technique for taking invertebrate species composition into account in an assessment of habitat quality. In regions where katydid assemblages are well-known, acoustic surveys and KBI may provide an efficient means for assessing habitats.
- ItemGas exchange patterns and water loss rates in the Table Mountain cockroach, Aptera fusca (Blattodea: Blaberidae)(Company of Biologists, 2013) Groenewald, Berlize; Bazelet, Corinna S.; Potter, C. Paige; Terblanche, John S.The importance of metabolic rate and/or spiracle modulation for saving respiratory water is contentious. One major explanation for gas exchange pattern variation in terrestrial insects is to effect a respiratory water loss (RWL) saving. To test this, we measured the rates of CO2 and H2O release (Embedded Image and Embedded Image, respectively) in a previously unstudied, mesic cockroach, Aptera fusca, and compared gas exchange and water loss parameters among the major gas exchange patterns (continuous, cyclic, discontinuous gas exchange) at a range of temperatures. Mean Embedded Image, Embedded Image and Embedded Image per unit Embedded Image did not differ among the gas exchange patterns at all temperatures (P>0.09). There was no significant association between temperature and gas exchange pattern type (P=0.63). Percentage of RWL (relative to total water loss) was typically low (9.79±1.84%) and did not differ significantly among gas exchange patterns at 15°C (P=0.26). The method of estimation had a large impact on the percentage of RWL, and of the three techniques investigated (traditional, regression and hyperoxic switch), the traditional method generally performed best. In many respects, A. fusca has typical gas exchange for what might be expected from other insects studied to date (e.g. Embedded Image, Embedded Image, RWL and cuticular water loss). However, we found for A. fusca that Embedded Image expressed as a function of metabolic rate was significantly higher than the expected consensus relationship for insects, suggesting it is under considerable pressure to save water. Despite this, we found no consistent evidence supporting the conclusion that transitions in pattern type yield reductions in RWL in this mesic cockroach.
- ItemThe metabolic costs of sexual signalling in the chirping katydid Plangia graminea (Serville) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are context dependent : cumulative costs add up fast(The Company of Biologists, 2017) Doubell, Marcee; Grant, Paul B. C.; Esterhuizen, Nanike; Bazelet, Corinna S.; Addison, Pia; Terblanche, John S.Katydids produce acoustic signals via stridulation, which they use to attract conspecific females for mating. However, direct estimates of the metabolic costs of calling to date have produced diverse cost estimates and are limited to only a handful of insect species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the metabolic cost of calling in an unstudied sub-Saharan katydid, Plangia graminea. Using wild-caught animals, we measured katydid metabolic rate using standard flow-through respirometry while simultaneously recording the number of calls produced. Overall, the metabolic rate during calling in P. graminea males was 60% higher than the resting metabolic rate (0.443±0.056 versus 0.279±0.028 ml CO₂ h⁻ ¹ g⁻ ¹), although this was highly variable among individuals. Although individual call costs were relatively inexpensive (ranging from 0.02 to 5.4% increase in metabolic rate per call), the individuals with cheaper calls called more often and for longer than those with expensive calls, resulting in the former group having significantly greater cumulative costs over a standard amount of time (9.5 h). However, the metabolic costs of calling are context dependent because the amount of time spent calling greatly influenced these costs in our trials. A power law function described this relationship between cumulative cost (y) and percentage increase per call (x) (y=130.21x⁻¹˙⁰⁶⁸, R2=0.858). The choice of metric employed for estimating energy costs (i.e. how costs are expressed) also affects the outcome and any interpretation of costs of sexual signalling. For example, the absolute, relative and cumulative metabolic costs of calling yielded strongly divergent estimates, and any fitness implications depend on the organism's energy budget and the potential trade-offs in allocation of resources that are made as a direct consequence of increased calling effort.
- ItemTesting the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for insect conservation : the case of South African katydids(Public Library of Science, 2016) Bazelet, Corinna S.; Thompson, Aileen C.; Naskrecki, Piotr; Guralnick, RobertThe use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet grid, we delineated katydid hotspots in two ways: (1) count-based: grid cells in the top 10% of total, endemic, threatened and/or sensitive species richness; vs. (2) score-based: grid cells with a mean value in the top 10% on a scoring system which scored each species on the basis of its IUCN Red List threat status, distribution, mobility and trophic level. We then compared katydid hotspots with each other and with recognized biodiversity hotspots. Grid cells within biodiversity hotspots had significantly higher count-based and score-based diversity than non-hotspot grid cells. There was a significant association between the three types of hotspots. Of the count-based measures, endemic species richness was the best surrogate for the others. However, the score-based measure out-performed all count-based diversity measures. Species richness was the least successful surrogate of all. The strong performance of the score-based method for hotspot prediction emphasizes the importance of including species’ natural history information for conservation decision-making, and is easily adaptable to other organisms. Furthermore, these results add empirical support for the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots in conserving non-target organisms.