Browsing by Author "Banga, C. B."
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- ItemGenetic analysis of somatic cell score and udder type traits in South African Holstein cows(South African Society for Animal Science, 2008) Dube, B.; Dzama, K.; Banga, C. B.Selection accuracy for resistance to mastitis may be increased by combining somatic cell score (SCS) and udder type into an udder health index, using genetic parameter estimates among them. A multi-trait animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters among lactation average SCS and udder type traits in South African Holstein cattle, through REML procedures. Data comprised records on 22 999 Holstein cows in 722 herds, collected through the National Milk Recording Scheme from 1996 to 2002. Average SCS in the first three lactations (SCS1, SCS2, SCS3) were considered as different traits and the udder type traits were fore udder attachment (FUA), rear udder height (RUH), udder cleft (UC), udder depth (UD), fore teat length (FTL) and fore teat placement (FTP). Heritability estimates for SCS were 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.02, respectively for SCS 1, SCS2 and SCS3. Udder type traits had heritability estimates ranging from 0.13 ± 0.01 for UC to 0.34 ± 0.01 for FTL. The genetic correlations between lactation SCS ranged from 0.82 ± 0.04 to 0.99 ± 0.03 for correlations of SCS3 with SCS1 and SCS2, respectively. Genetic correlations between SCS and udder type traits were in the range -0.01 ± 0.07 between FUA and SCS3 to -0.38 ± 0.04 between UD and SCS1 and SCS2. Slow genetic progress is expected when selection is applied independently on SCS and udder type traits, due to the generally low heritability estimates. Low, shallow udders with narrowly placed teats are associated with low SCS in the South African Holstein population.
- ItemGenetic correlations between female fertility and production traits in South African Holstein cattle(South African Society for Animal Science, 2007) Makgahlela, M. L.; Banga, C. B.; Norris, D.; Dzama, K.; Ng'ambi, J. W.Female fertility is increasingly gaining importance in national dairy cattle breeding objectives worldwide. In South Africa, there is no routine prediction of breeding values for reproductive performance in dairy cattle and selection is mainly focused on production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters among female fertility traits (age at first calving and calving interval) and first, second and third lactation production traits in South African Holstein cattle to determine the effect that selection on production per se may have on female fertility. Performance records on 40 437 South African Holstein cows in 766 herds were used. (Co)variance estimates were obtained by multitrait analysis, using the REML procedure. Heritability estimates were moderate for age at first calving (0.24 ± 0.02) and low for calving interval (0.03 ± 0.01). Genetic correlations between age at first calving and yield traits were low to moderately negative, ranging from -0.17 ± 0.07 with second lactation butterfat percentage to -0.50 ± 0.05 with first lactation butterfat yield. Calving interval had moderate to highly positive genetic correlations with yield traits, ranging from 0.37 ± 0.10 with second lactation milk yield to 0.69 ± 0.06 with first lactation milk yield. Correlations between female fertility and butterfat and protein percentages across all lactations, were close to zero. The observed antagonistic relationship between calving interval and production traits highlights the need to include calving interval in breeding objectives for South African Holstein cattle.
- ItemGenetic prediction models and heritability estimates for functional longevity in dairy cattle(South African Society for Animal Science, 2015) Imbayarwo-Chikosi, V. E.; Dzama, K.; Halimani, T. E.; Van Wyk, J. B.; Maiwashe, A.; Banga, C. B.Longevity is a major component of the breeding objective for dairy cattle in many countries because of its high economic value. The trait has been recommended for inclusion in the breeding objective for dairy cattle in South Africa. Linear models, random regression (RR) models, threshold models (TMs) and proportional hazard models (PH) have been used to evaluate longevity. This paper discusses these methodologies and their advantages and disadvantages. Heritability estimates obtained from these models are also reviewed. Linear methodologies can model binary and actual longevity, while RR and TM methodologies model binary survival. PH procedures model the hazard function of a cow at time t derived from survival from first calving to culling, death or censoring. It is difficult to compare methodologies for sire evaluation and ranking across countries because of the variation in the definition of longevity and the choice of model. Sire estimated breeding values (EBVs) are derived differently for the models. Sire EBVs from PH models are expressed as deviations of the culling risk from the mean of the base sires, expected percentage of daughters still alive after a given number of lactations, expected length of productive life in absolute terms or as standard deviation units. In linear, TM and RR modelling, sire EBVs for longevity have been expressed as deviations of survival from the mean estimated with Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Appropriate models should thus be developed to evaluate functional longevity for possible inclusion in the overall breeding objective for South African dairy cattle.
- ItemRandom regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle production data in South Africa : Creating the framework(South African Society for Animal Science, 2010) Dzomba, E. F.; Nephawe, K. A.; Maiwashe, A. N.; Cloete, S. W. P. (Schalk Willem Petrus van der Merwe); Chimonyo, M.; Banga, C. B.; Muller, C. J. C.; Dzama, K.Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation curve for cows in similar contemporary groups and homogeneity of additive genetic variances across lactation and for its inability to account for persistency of lactation. The random regression test-day model has been suggested as a more appropriate method and is currently implemented by several Interbull member-countries. This review traces the development of random regression methods and their adoption in test-day models. Comparisons are drawn with the fixed regression test-day model. The paper discusses reasons for suggesting the adoption of the random regression approach for dairy cattle evaluation in South Africa and identifies the key areas where research efforts should focus. .