Browsing by Author "Armstrong, Gareth Owen"
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- ItemThe production of resveratrol by wine yeast(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2001-03) Armstrong, Gareth Owen; Pretorius, I. S.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Vivier, Melane A.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grapevine is constantly under attack from a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria and fungi. In order to ensure survival, the grapevine has developed a vast array of defense mechanisms to combat invading organisms. A key element of this disease resistance is the production of phytoalexins, of which resveratrol is the primary component. The synthesis of resveratrol, together with other structural and biochemical defense mechanisms equips the plant to combat a number of pathogens resulting in the production of healthy grapes for the vinification of top quality wine. As part of the active disease response resveratrol is synthesised de novo in the berry skin at the site of infection, on recognition of the pathogen. Here it is able to limit the damage caused by the pathogen as well as preventing it from spreading. This gives the plant the opportunity to initiate its systemic acquired resistance thereby protecting the rest of the plant and preventing secondary infections. The fermentation of red wine on the grape skins allows for the extraction of resveratrol from the skin into the wine. Red wines therefore have a significantly higher concentration of resveratrol than white varieties, which contain little or no resveratrol at all. It is for this reason that the moderate consumption of wine, in particular red wine, is synonymous with a healthy lifestyle. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol are important contributors to the cardiovascular benefits derived from the consumption of red wine. It now seems, however, that significant cardiovascular protection is derived from the synergistic action of resveratrol, the polyphenols and the alcohol in wine. With the wholesomeness of any food or beverage being of extreme importance, the aim of this project was to manipulate wine yeast to produce resveratrol during fermentation. This required the introduction of an entire metabolic pathway, by integrating plant genes into the yeast. Resveratrol synthase utilises three malonyl-CoA and one pcoumaroyl- CoA molecules to produce one molecule of resveratrol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces malonyl-CoA but no p-coumaroyl-CoA. Therefore, the following genes were obtained to enable yeast to produce p-coumaroyl-CoA: PAL, encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase to convert phenylalanine into cinnamic acid; C4H, encoding cinnamate-4- hydroxlyase to convert cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid; and 4CL9 or 4CL216 encoding CoA-ligases to convert the p-coumaric acid into p-coumaroyl-CoA. To attain high-level expression, the genes were subcloned under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Due to integration problems with these expression cassettes and the fact that the yeast was able to consume p-coumaric acid, the 4CL9, 4CL216 and Vst1 (encoding resveratrol synthase) genes were subcloned under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) and PGK1 promoters into episomal plasmids, respectively. A laboratory yeast strain containing both the Vst1 and 4CL9, or the Vst1 and 4CL216 genes was evaluated for its ability to utilise p-coumaric acid and produce resveratrol. Northem analysis confirmed that the Vst1, 4CL9 and 4CL216 genes were transcribed and over-expressed compared to the control strain. The transformants expressing the CoA-ligase genes utilised the p-coumaric acid faster than the control, although it was not possible to determine whether p-coumaroyl-CoA was produced. No resveratrol was produced under the assay conditions used. The results indicated that the yeast is unable to produce active resveratrol synthase, which is required to catalyse the final reaction in the production of resveratrol. Posttranslational modification, such as overglycosylation and disulphide formation, of the heterologous protein in yeast has been indicated as the possible reason for the lack of enzyme activity. This introduces an exciting area of research for the development of biotechnological tools with the ability to increase the production of active heterologous proteins in yeast.