Browsing by Author "Andrason, Alexander"
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- ItemCartography of Short yiqtol in Biblical Hebrew(Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 2016) Andrason, AlexanderENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper provides a dynamic (i.e. cognitive, typological and grammaticalization driven) analysis of short yiqtol in Biblical Hebrew. The author argues that short yiqtol can be understood as a coherent construction if it is modeled as a wave – a synchronic two-dimensional map whose components are related cognitively (as visualized by the x axis) and specified for their degree of prototypicality (as visualized by the y axis). The evidence demonstrates that short yiqtol should be classified as a gram that travels a modal-contamination path. Its contamination originated in a deontic context of speaker modality (both affirmative and negative), subsequently extended to subordinate uses (goal) and future values (first in apodoses and next in other syntactic environments). In Biblical Hebrew, the zone of prototypicality includes deontic senses. The value of goal constitutes the secondary peak of prototypicality. The sense of futurity is non-prototypical.
- ItemThe case system of the Vilamovicean adjective : from description to explanation(Stellenbosch University, Department of General Linguistics, 2013) Andrason, AlexanderThe present paper offers a detailed description and analysis of the adjectival declensional patterns in the Modern Vilamovicean language. The idiom possesses six declensional patterns – restricted to distinct environments – that, from a morphological perspective, form a continuum ranging from a strong declension (classes 1, 2 and 3) to a weak one (class 6), through intermediate mixed paradigms (classes 4 and 5). Nowadays, only the mixed and weak classes are productive and common. If compared with Classical Vilamovicean, the adjectival declension has suffered a process of syncretism and decay, evolving towards a two-case marking: nominative versus accusative-dative in the masculine singular and nominative-accusative versus dative elsewhere. Thus, the adjectival morphological case marking is more effective than in the nominal system (where no case distinction is usually made) but less successful than in the pronominal system (where a three-case distinction predominates). Within a typological-grammaticalization framework, the inflectional organization of Vilamovicean adjectives can be defined as an advanced case system.
- ItemCognate objects of weather verbs in African languages of South Africa – from synchronic variation to a grammaticalization path(Stellenbosch University, Department of Linguistics, 2017) Andrason, Alexander; Visser, MariannaThe authors argue that the synchronic variation of cognate objects of weather verbs exhibited in six African languages of South Africa (Sepedi, Sesotho, Tshivenda, isiXhosa, Xitsonga, and isiZulu) has a diachronic explanation, and may be represented as a grammaticalization path. This path gradually leads from prototypical cognate objects that disallow object agreement (pronominalization) and promotion to subjects in passive constructions to prototypical objects where both agreement (pronominalization) and promotion are grammatical. This provides further support for the modelling of cognate objects, adjuncts and arguments in terms of a continuum and for a gradient view of syntactic categories, in general.
- ItemA complex system of complex predicates: tense, taxis, aspect and mood in Basse Mandinka from a grammaticalisation and cognitive perspective(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-03) Andrason, Alexander; Visser, Marianna Wilhelmina; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of African Languages.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present work analyses the Basse Mandinka tense-taxis-aspect-mood verbal system within the framework of cognitive and grammaticalisation linguistics and from the perspective of complexity theory. The author builds his study by pursuing the following more specific – gradually more macroscopic and systematic – objectives: (a) a description of the entire semantic potential of all the Basse Mandinka verbal grams; (b) a representation of the synchronic inventories of senses of each Basse Mandinka verbal construction as a coherent phenomenon, i.e. as a kinetic qualitative map ordered by means of grammaticalisation templates or paths; (c) an introduction of the information concerning the prototypicality of the map and the development of a bi-dimensional representation of the meaning as a wave; (d) a construction of streams that contain gram-waves organised along similar evolutionary templates; and (e) a modelling of the entire Basse Mandinka verbal organisation into a system of currents. This system – visualised as an ocean – is demonstrated to have characteristics typical to complex bodies: it is open, situated, fuzzy, full of unstable individuals, highly cardinal, uncontrollable, dynamic, metastable, past dependant, nonlinear, sensitive to initial conditions, deterministically chaotic in some regions, non-additive, non-resultant, but containing emergent properties, structurally intricate, self-organising and characterised by top-down causation and bottom-up causation. Additionally, as far as its methodological properties are concerned, the representation is incomplete, provisional and pluralistic in agreement with models of real-world complexity.
- ItemThe coordinators i and z in Polish : a cognitive-typological approach (PART 1)(De Gruyter Open, 2017) Andrason, AlexanderDeveloped within the frame of cognitive and typological linguistics, the present study examines the taxonomical status of the lexemes i and z in Polish. To achieve this aim, the author analyzes the compliance of the two forms with the prototype of coordinate-hood and the structure of their maps of polyfunctionality. The evidence demonstrates that i is a canonical instantiation of the category of coordinate-hood while z is less canonical. Additionally, the two lexemes yield different maps of polyfunctionality (with distinct prototypicality nuclei), which reflects their distinct diachronic and conceptual origin. The map of i radiates from the value of ‘also’ while the map of z radiates from a comitative sense.
- ItemThe coordinators i and z in Polish : a cognitive-typological approach (Part 2)(De Gruyter Open, 2017) Andrason, AlexanderENGLISH ABSTRACT: Developed within the frame of cognitive and typological linguistics, the present study examines the taxonomical status of the lexemes i and z in Polish. To achieve this aim, the author analyzes the compliance of the two forms with the prototype of coordinate-hood and the structure of their maps of polyfunctionality. The evidence demonstrates that i is a canonical instantiation of the category of coordinate-hood while z is less canonical. Additionally, the two lexemes yield different maps of polyfunctionality (with distinct prototypicality nuclei), which reflects their distinct diachronic and conceptual origin. The map of i radiates from the value of ‘also’ while the map of z radiates from a comitative sense. This article – the last in a series of two – completes the presentation of the empirical evidence and interprets it within the adopted framework. The degrees of canonicity of i and z are determined and the semantic-functional maps of the two lexemes are compared.
- ItemDative applicative elements in Arusa (Maa) : a canonical approach to the argument-adjunct distinction(Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University, 2019) Andrason, Alexander; Karani, MichaelENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present paper analyzes the degree of the argumenthood or adjuncthood of elements licensed by the dative applicative (DA) construction in Arusa within a canonical approach to the argument-adjunct distinction. After testing DA elements for the various criteria and diagnostics associated with the typologically-driven prototype of arguments and adjuncts, the authors conclude the following: in most cases, DA elements behave as canonical arguments and are therefore located close to the argumenthood pole of the argument-adjunct continuum.
- ItemDescription of the semantic potential of the si-construction in Basse Mandinka(Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University, 2012) Andrason, AlexanderThe present paper provides a detailed description of the semantic potential offered by the si-construction in Basse Mandinka (a regional variety of the Gambian Mandinka language), by enumerating all temporal, aspectual, taxis and modal values which this verbal form may convey. The study demonstrates that the si-construction offers a wide range of senses. Most commonly, the construction introduces the idea of futurity, regularly accompanied by modal tones of necessity and obligation. More specifically, in the first person, it expresses desires and promises, obligation and necessity, as well as, permission and deliberation; in the second person, it functions as an imperative; and in the third person, it approximates the category of a jussive. The si-construction also introduces modal ideas of obligation and necessity situated in a past time frame, being additionally able to function as a future in the past category. The si-construction can likewise convey the sense of epistemic possibility with no evident future undertones. Finally, it can denote present habitual and customary activities. A profoundly modal nature of the si-construction additionally justifies its common use with the verb noo "be able, can". In such cases, it introduces various modal nuances, typically bereaved of any future sense.
- ItemThe EK construction in Xhosa : a cognitive account(2017-11-29) Andrason, Alexander; Dlali, MawandeENGLISH ABSTRACT: Developed within the frame of cognitive linguistics, this paper argues that the entire syntactic and semantic profile of the EK gram can be unified and viewed as coherent by modeling it as a map of different but related features. This understanding gives access both to the extreme variability of the EK form and to its internal cohesion, without equating this construction with one taxonomical category or postulating a set of invariant properties. The synchronic evidence demonstrates that the traits such as intransitivity, non-agentivity, resultativity/ stativity, and modality are prototypical. Other traits, e.g. (semi-)transitivity, (semi-)agentivity, spontaneity, and impetus are less prototypical or nonprototypical. The former class is psychologically associated with the EK gram, while the latter class does not enter into speakers’ representation of this form. The true cohesion of the EK gram is, however, recoverable only diachronically. The historical center of the map of the EK form corresponds to an in-/detransitive, agentless, resultative gram. This input construction has developed all the other properties visualized as components of the map (e.g. functions that are more transitive and more agentive, as well as stative and modal senses) by following a set of crosslinguistically common evolutionary tendencies or grammaticalization paths.
- ItemThe exotic nature of ideophones – from Khoekhoe to Xhosa(University of Stellenbosch, Department of General Linguistics, 2017) Andrason, AlexanderThe present paper analyzes the exoticness of Khoekhoe-sourced ideophones as a possible factor that stimulated the introduction of certain phonological novelties to the sound system of Xhosa. Having analyzed Khoekhoe-sourced ideophones of Xhosa for five exotic features postulated crosslinguistically (aberrant sounds and configurations of sounds, length, tones and harmony), the author concludes the following: due to their intense phonological exoticness and the crosslinguistic propensity for unaltered borrowing, Khoekhoe-sourced ideophones may have played a relevant role in the Khoekhoe-Xhosa transfer. The efficiency of this transfer seems to be correlated with the frequency of a given exotic feature in the donor Khoekhoe lexemes.
- ItemExpressions of futurity in the Vilamovicean language(Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University, 2010) Andrason, AlexanderThe present paper aims at presenting all major morphosyntactic means of expressing future meaning in Vilamovicean, the smallest Germanic language spoken in the town of Wilamowice in Southern Poland. As will be demonstrated – and contrary to the opinion found in the literature published so far – the concept of futurity is not limited to the wada future but, rather, can be conveyed by a number of constructions. These forms may be divided into two main groups: the first one includes formations that are employed with no restriction by all speakers (among others these are constructions like the present tense, the periphrases wada + infinitive, wjyd + past participle or adverbials, wada hon/zajn + past participle, and zuła + infinitive, as well as various modally based future expressions) while the second class consists of two novel and "rare" locutions which are accepted uniquely by a limited number of speakers (this group includes locutions such as wada + past participle and wada + present). Furthermore, two other Vilamovicean periphrases will be discussed, namely wie + past participle and wie + present, which, even though restricted to the conditional value, display a similar morphosyntactic shape as the "rare futures".
- ItemFrom African languages to an African perspective on language : the work and research of Prof. Marianna W. Visser(Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University, 2019) Andrason, AlexanderENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the contribution of Prof. Marianna W. Visser to African linguistics. I present the academic and professional trajectory of Prof. Visser and her research achievements, focusing on publications in three branches of language science: formal linguistics (morpho-syntax and semantics), applied linguistics (language policy and multilingual education), and text-linguistics (appraisal theory and discourse analysis). These three areas and their respective themes are subsequently reflected in the selection of articles included in the volume, which this article also introduces.
- ItemFrom vectors to waves and streams : an alternative approach to semantic maps(University of Stellenbosch, Department of General Linguistics, 2016) Andrason, AlexanderThis article designs a method of improving traditional, qualitative semantic maps based on grammaticalisation paths, by including both quantitative data (frequency) and information concerning a gram’s environment (the relation to the other maps). The incorporation of qualitative evidence transforms vectored maps into waves, while the introduction of the contextual factor combines waves organised along the same grammaticalisation template into a stream. The structure of a wave delivers, in turn, the statistical prototypicality of a gram (i.e. the prototypicality that is conditioned by the gram’s own wave), whereas the structure of the stream yields product prototypicality (i.e. the prototypicality that is a combination of the gram’s wave and the other waves of the stream). It is additionally hypothesised that the product prototypicality may be an overt indicator of the psychological perception of the grams by speakers.
- ItemIdeophones as linguistic "rebels" : the extra-systematicity of ideophones in Xhosa (part 1)(Institute of Oriental Studies of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2020) Andrason, AlexanderENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper contributes to the study of structural distinctiveness of the category of ideophony. The author analyzes the extent to which Xhosa ideophones exhibit the so-called extra-systematic properties, which cross-linguistically tend to distinguish ideophones from other lexical classes. The analysis demonstrates that ideophones are relatively extra-systematic in Xhosa, although their extra-systematicity is not unitary. It is the largest in morphology, slightly less visible in phonology, and only residual in syntax. It is proposed that the distinct degrees of extrasystematicity are related to differences in grammaticalization and a gradual integration of ideophones into the Xhosa grammar – with the adjustment in syntax occurring faster than the morphological adaptation. In this paper – the first in a series of two articles – the author deals with methodological issues and introduces evidence related to the phonology and morphology of ideophones in Xhosa.
- ItemLeft dislocation : an exploration in linguistic typology(University of Stellenbosch, Department of General Linguistics, 2016) Andrason, Alexander; Westbury, Josh; Van der Merwe, Christo H. J.No abstract available
- ItemLeft Dislocation in Arabic : the complexity of form and meaning(Stellenbosch University, Department of General Linguistics, 2016) Andrason, AlexanderThis paper studies the complexity of L(eft) D(islocation). It demonstrates that the function that is crosslinguistically associated with LD is conveyed in Arabic by a set of LD constructions. In the analyzed corpus, these constructions belong to two main types: Clitic LD and Subject LD. Some LD constructions formally and/or functionally overlap with other grammatical categories, especially with fronting. Overall, the absence of a feature proposed for the LD prototype does not imply that a new category, different from LD, must be postulated. The overlap between LD and fronting is explained as a typical effect of language complexity, which can be dealt with if the system of forms and meanings is understood as fuzzy.
- ItemThe map of ti in Kituba - testing and expanding the typological model of the polysemy of conjunctive coordinators(Department of Linguistics and the African Studies Center, University of California, 2019) Andrason, AlexanderThe present article analyzes the polysemy of the element ti in Kituba from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, by applying the framework of dynamic semantic maps and waves. The qualitative and quantitative corpus study, enhanced by evidence provided by Kituba native speakers, demonstrates the following: although ti spans most parts of the typological map of the polysemy of conjunctive coordinators, its center of prototypicality is located in the initial stage (comitative) and two intermediate stages (possessive and certain types of coordinate-hood) available along the grammaticalization pathway underlying the map. This suggests a semi-advanced grammaticalization profile for ti. The study also proposes certain changes in the typological map of the polysemy of conjunctive coordinators, postulating new components of the map (or grammaticalization stages), and alternative linking directions. Additionally, a possible manner of introducing quantitative data (related to prototypicality) to the qualitative map of polysemy is presented. The resulting model is argued to exhibit properties typical of complexity: structural intricacy, gradience, fuzziness, and multi-causality.
- ItemThe mosaic evolution of left dislocation in Xhosa(Stellenbosch University, Department of General Linguistics, 2016) Andrason, Alexander; Visser, Marianna W.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates that the status of Clitic LD in Xhosa is a result of the mosaic evolution of Xhosa grammar. It emerges as an accumulation and combination of two more individual, distinct and, at least, initially separated developments and characteristics – LD sensu stricto and Object Agreement. This view enables the authors to propose a possible solution to the problem of whether the Clitic LD structure in Xhosa (and Nguni) is an instantiation of LD (and its prototypical function as posited by Westbury (2014)) or fronting (and its topical and focal functions). The Clitic LD structure is employed to accomplish the two tasks. The former is derived from the original LD construction, while the latter arose due to the Object Agreement cycle. The mosaic character of LD in Xhosa, in turn, demonstrates the situatedness of LD. LD is determined not only by its own evolutionary baggage (the source from which it has developed) but also by the dynamics of the environment in which it has been embedded (the properties of other constructions).
- ItemOpen data intermediaries in developing countries(Centre for Community Informatics, Research, Development and Training, 2016) Van Schalkwyk, Francois; Canares, Michael; Chattapadhyay, Sumandro; Andrason, AlexanderThis paper offers a more socially nuanced approach to open data intermediaries using the theoretical framework of Bourdieu’s social model, particularly his species of capital. Secondary data on intermediaries from Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries research was analysed according to a working definition of an open data intermediary presented in this paper, and with a focus on how intermediaries are able to linking agents in an open data supply chain, including to grassroots communities. The study found that open data supply chains may comprise multiple intermediaries and that multiple forms of capital may be required to connect the supply and use of open data. The effectiveness of intermediaries can be attributed to their proximity to data suppliers or users, and proximity can be expressed as a function of the type of capital that an intermediary possesses. However, because no single intermediary necessarily has all the capital available to link effectively to all sources of power in a field, multiple intermediaries with complementary configurations of capital are more likely to connect between power nexuses. This study concludes that consideration needs to be given to the presence of multiple intermediaries in an open data ecosystem, each of whom may possess different forms of capital to enable the use of open data.
- ItemParticipatory detection of language barriers towards multilingual sustainability(ies) in Africa(MDPI, 2022-07-04) Litre, Gabriela; Hirsch, Fabrice; Caron, Patrick; Andrason, Alexander; Bonnardel, Nathalie; Fointiat, Valerie; Nekoto, Wilhelmina Onyothi; Abbott, Jade; Dobre, Cristiana; Dalboni, Juliana; Steuckardt, Agnes; Luxardo, Giancarlo; Bohbot, HerveAfter decades of political, economic, and scientific efforts, humanity has not gotten any closer to global sustainability. With less than a decade to reach the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deadline of the 2030 Agenda, we show that global development agendas may be getting lost in translation, from their initial formulation to their final implementation. Sustainability science does not “speak” most of the 2000 languages from Africa, where the lack of indigenous terminology hinders global efforts such as the COVID-19 pandemic fight. Sociolinguistics, social psychology, cognitive ergonomics, geography, environmental sciences, and artificial intelligence (AI) are all relevant disciplinary fields to uncover the “foreign language effect” that hinders the implementation of the SDGs in Africa. We make the case for detecting and addressing language barriers towards multilingual sustainability in Africa by (1) exploring the ”foreign language effect” among African decision-makers and recognising their alternative social representations about sustainability; and (2) detecting Western language stereotypes about sustainability. We propose rethinking SDG-related scientific notions through participatory natural language processing (NLP) and the study of African social representations of sustainability, thus enabling a more inclusive and efficient approach to “sustainability(ies)”.