Browsing by Author "Adetokunboh, Olatunji"
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Results Per Page
- ItemDoes economic growth reduce childhood stunting? a multicountry analysis of 89 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa(BMJ Publishing, 2020-01) Yaya, Sanni; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Kunnuji, Michael; Navaneetham, Kannan; Akinyemi, Joshua O.; Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza; Adjiwanou, Visseho; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Bishwajit, GhoseBackground: There is mixed evidence and lack of consensus on the impact of economic development on stunting, and likewise there is a dearth of empirical studies on this relationship in the case of sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, this paper examines whether economic growth is associated with childhood stunting in low-income and middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: We analysed data from 89 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1987 and 2016 available as of October 2018 using multivariable multilevel logistic regression models to show the association between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and stunting. We adjusted the models for child’s age, survey year, child’s sex, birth order and country random effect, and presented adjusted and unadjusted ORs. Results: We included data from 490 526 children. We found that the prevalence of stunting decreased with increasing GDP per capita (correlation coefficient=−0.606, p<0.0001). In the unadjusted model for full sample, for every US$1000 increase in GDP per capita, the odds of stunting decreased by 23% (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.78). The magnitude of the association between GDP per capita and stunting was stronger among children in the richest quintile. After adjustment was made, the association was not significant among children from the poorest quintile. However, the magnitude of the association was more pronounced among children from low-income countries, such that, in the model adjusted for child’s age, survey year, child’s sex, birth order and country random effect, the association between GDP per capita and stunting remained statistically significant; for every US$1000 increase in GDP per capita, the odds of stunting decreased by 12% (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.90). Conclusion: There was no significant association between economic growth and child nutritional status. The prevalence of stunting decreased with increasing GDP per capita. This was more pronounced among children from the richest quintile. The magnitude of the association was higher among children from low-income countries, suggesting that households in the poorest quintile were typically the least likely to benefit from economic gains. The findings could serve as a building block needed to modify current policy as per child nutrition-related programmes in Africa.
- ItemEffect of community-based interventions targeting female sex workers along the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa : a systematic review and meta-analysis(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-05-06) Atuhaire, Lydia; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Shumba, Constance; Nyasulu, Peter S.Background: Female sex workers are extremely vulnerable and highly susceptible to being infected with human immunodeficiency virus. As a result, community-based targeted interventions have been recommended as one of the models of care to improve access to HIV services and continued engagement in care. We conducted a systematic review to (1) assess the effect of FSW-targeted community interventions on the improvement of HIV services access along the treatment cascade and (2) describe community-based interventions that positively affect continuation in HIV care across the HIV treatment cascade for FSWs in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We defined the 5 steps that make up the HIV care cascade and categorized them as outcomes, namely, HIV testing and diagnosis, linkage to care, receipt of ART, and achievement of viral suppression. We conducted a systematic search of randomized controlled trials, cohort, and cross-sectional studies done in sub-Saharan African countries and published from 2004 to 2020. The period was selected based on the time span within which ART was scaled up through widespread roll-out of comprehensive HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed studies with data on the implementation of community interventions for any of the HIV care cascade stage. The data were analyzed using random effects meta-analysis where possible, and for the rest of the studies, data were synthesized using summary statistics. Results: The significant impact of the community interventions was observed on HIV testing, HIV diagnosis, and ART use. However, for HIV testing and ART use, the improvement was not sustained for the entire period of implementation. There were minimal interventions that had impact on HIV diagnosis, with only one community service delivery model showing significance. Generally, the interventions that had reasonable impact are those that implemented targeted and comprehensive package of HIV services provided at one location, and with unique strategies specific to each cascade stage. Conclusions: The evidence brought forward from this review shows that the effect of community-based interventions varies across the different stages of HIV care cascade. A broad package of interventions including a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural, designed with specific strategies, unique to each cascade stage appears to be more effective, although information on long-term treatment outcomes and the extent to which FSWs remain engaged in care is sparse. There is need to conduct a further research to deepen the assessment of the effectiveness of community-based interventions on HIV care cascade for FSWs. This will enhance identification of evidence-based optimal interventions that will guide effective allocation of scarce resources for strategies that would have a significant impact on HIV service delivery.
- ItemEffect of female sex work-targeted community-based interventions along the HIV treatment cascade in sub-Saharan Africa : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2020) Atuhaire, Lydia; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Shumba, Constance; Nyasulu, Peter S.Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs) are a known high-risk group that are at increased risk of HIV transmission due to exposure to multiple sexual partners and inability to negotiate safe sex attributed to challenging economic circumstances. Previous systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of HIV interventions prioritising FSWs and have shown that targeted interventions improve access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Interventions that increase FSWs’ uptake of services are well documented; however, evidence on specific interventions aimed at improving FSWs’ continuity in HIV care along the treatment cascade is lacking. This systematic review aims to document the performance of community-based interventions along the HIV treatment cascade. Methods and analysis: We will use a sensitive search strategy for electronic bibliographic databases, bibliographies of included articles and grey literature sources. In addition, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the WHO websites, peer-reviewed conference papers and grey literature sources will be searched for additional reports of sex work programmes. We will include randomised controlled trials, cross-sectional surveys and cohort interventions where community-based HIV services were provided to FSWs and measure the performance of the HIV intervention on one or more cascade stages. We will conduct a systematic review of studies published from 2004 to present within the sub-Saharan Africa region. We will report quantitative study outcomes of HIV testing and diagnosis, linkage to care, initiation on antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression. We will analyse the data using the random-effects meta-analysis method, and funnel plots will be used to assess the publication bias. Ethics and dissemination: This systematic review will not require ethical approval; we will publish data from manuscripts. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.
- ItemEngaging community health workers in maternal and infant death identification in Khayelitsha, South Africa : a pilot study(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-11-26) Igumbor, Jude; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Muller, Jocelyn; Bosire, Edna N.; Ajuwon, Ademola; Phetlhu, Rene; Mbule, Marjorie; Ronan, Agnes; Burtt, Fiona; Scheepers, Esca; Schmitz, KathrinBackground: Engaging community health workers in a formalised death review process through verbal and social autopsy has been utilised in different settings to estimate the burden and causes of mortality, where civil registration and vital statistics systems are weak. This method has not been widely adopted. We piloted the use of trained community health workers (CHW) to investigate the extent of unreported maternal and infant deaths in Khayelitsha and explored requirements of such a programme and the role of CHWs in bridging gaps. Methods: This was a mixed methods study, incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methods. Case identification and data collection were done by ten trained CHWs. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interview guides for key informant interviews, focus group discussions and informal conversations. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using a content analysis approach. Results: Although more than half of the infant deaths occurred in hospitals (n = 11/17), about a quarter that occurred at home (n = 4/17) were unreported. Main causes of deaths as perceived by family members of the deceased were related to uncertainty about the quality of care in the facilities, socio-cultural and economic contexts where people lived and individual factors. Most unreported deaths were further attributed to weak facilitycommunity links and socio-cultural practices. Fragmented death reporting systems were perceived to influence the quality of the data and this impacted on the number of unreported deaths. Only two maternal deaths were identified in this pilot study. Conclusions: CHWs can conduct verbal and social autopsy for maternal and infant deaths to complement formal vital registration systems. Capacity development, stakeholder’s engagement, supervision, and support are essential for a community-linked death review system. Policymakers and implementers should establish a functional relationship between community-linked reporting systems and the existing system as a starting point. There is a need for more studies to confirm or build on our pilot findings.
- ItemEpidemiology of multimorbidity among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing, 2020-12) Oladimeji, Kelechi Elizabeth; Dzomba, Armstrong; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Zungu, Lindiwe; Yaya, Sanni; Ter Goon, DanielIntroduction: Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, yet enormous knowledge gaps still exist to elicit a comprehensive portrait of multimorbidity and HIV linkage. This study aims to conduct a systematic meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature to investigate the current status of multimorbidity epidemiology among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and analysis: Our review will assess observational studies (ie, cohort, case–control and cross-sectional) on multimorbidity associated with HIV/AIDS between 1 January 2005 and 31 October 2020 from sub-Saharan Africa. Databases to be searched include PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane library, African Index Medicus and African Journals Online. We will also search the WHO clinical trial registry and databases for systematic reviews. The search strategy will involve the use of medical subject headings and key terms to obtain studies on the phenomena of HIV and multimorbidity at high precision. Quality assessment of eligible studies will be ascertained using a validated quality assessment tool for observational studies and risk of bias through sensitivity analysis to identify publication bias. Further, data on characteristics of the study population, multimorbid conditions, epidemiological rates and spatial distribution of multimorbid conditions in PLHIV will be extracted. Heterogeneity of individual studies will be evaluated using the I2 statistic from combined effect size estimates. The statistical analysis will be performed using STATA statistical software V.15 and results will be graphically represented on a forest plot.
- ItemShifting tasks from pharmacy to nonpharmacy personnel for providing antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV : a systematic review and metaanalysis(BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-8) Mbeye, Nyanyiwe Masingi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Negussie, Eyerusalem; Kredo, Tamara; Wiysonge, Charles SheyObjectives Lay people or non-pharmacy health workers with training could dispense antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-constrained countries, freeing up time for pharmacists to focus on more technical tasks. We assessed the effectiveness of such task-shifting in lowincome and middle-income countries. Method We conducted comprehensive searches of peerreviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened search outputs, selected controlled trials, extracted data and resolved discrepancies by consensus. We performed random-effects meta-analysis and assessed certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Three studies with 1993 participants met the inclusion criteria, including two cluster trials conducted in Kenya and Uganda and an individually randomised trial conducted in Brazil. We found very low certainty evidence regarding mortality due to the low number of events. Therefore, we are uncertain whether there is a true increase in mortality as the effect size suggests, or a reduction in mortality between pharmacy and non-pharmacy models of dispensing ART (risk ratio (RR) 1.86, 95% CI 0.44 to 7.95, n=1993, three trials, very low certainty evidence). There may be no differences between pharmacy and non-pharmacy models of dispensing ART on virological failure (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.15, n=1993, three trials, low certainty evidence) and loss to follow-up (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.91, n=1993. three trials, low certainty evidence). We found some evidence that costs may be reduced for the patient and health system when task-shifting is undertaken. Conclusions The low certainty regarding the evidence implies a high likelihood that further research may find the effects of the intervention to be substantially different from our findings. If resource-constrained countries decide to shift ART dispensing and distribution from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel, this should be accompanied by robust monitoring and impact evaluation.