Browsing by Author "Addison, Pia"
Now showing 1 - 12 of 12
Results Per Page
- ItemAcridid ecology in the sugarcane agro-ecosystem in the Zululand region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa(Pensoft, 2020-01-10) Bam, Adrian; Addison, Pia; Conlong, DesmondGrasshoppers and locusts are well known crop and pasture pests throughout the world. Periodically they cause extensive damage to large areas of crops and grazing lands, which often exacerbate food shortage issues in many countries. In South Africa, acridid outbreaks rarely reach economic proportions, but in sugarcane plantations, localized outbreaks of native acridid species have been reported for the last eight years with increasing frequency and intensity in certain areas. This study was undertaken from May 2012 to May 2013 to identify the economically important acridid species in the sugarcane agroecosystem in these outbreak areas, to monitor seasonal activity patterns, to assess sampling methods, and to determine the pest status of the major species through damage ratings. Five acridid species of particular importance were identified: Nomadacris septemfasciata (Serville), Petamella prosternalis (Karny), Ornithacris cyanea (Stoll), Cataloipus zuluensis Sjötedt, and Cyrtacanthacris aeruginosa (Stoll). All species are univoltine. Petamella prosternalis was the most abundant species and exhibited a winter egg diapause, while N. septemfasciata, the second most abundant species, exhibited a winter reproductive diapause. Petamella prosternalis and N. septemfasciata were significantly correlated with the damage-rating index, suggesting that these two species were responsible for most of the feeding damage found on sugarcane. This study, for the first time, identified the acridid species complex causing damage to sugarcane in the Zululand area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and documented their population characteristics and related damage. These data are important information on which to base sound integrated pest management strategies.
- ItemCharacterisation of Metarhizium majus (Hypocreales : Clavicipitaceae) isolated from the Western Cape Province, South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2021-03-19) Mathulwe, Letodi L.; Jacobs, Karin; Malan, Antoinette P.; Birkhofer, Klaus; Addison, Matthew F.; Addison, PiaEntomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are important soil-dwelling entomopathogens, which can be used as biological control agents against pest insects. EPF are capable of causing lethal epizootics in pest insect populations in agroecosystems. During a survey of the orchard soil at an organic farm, different EPF species were collected and identified to species level, using both morphological and molecular techniques. The EPF were trapped from soil samples taken from an apricot orchard. The traps, which were baited in the laboratory, used susceptible host insects, including the last-instar larvae of Galleria mellonella (wax moth larvae) and Tenebrio molitor (mealworm larvae). The potential pathogenicity of the local Metarhizium majus isolate was tested and verified using susceptible laboratory-reared last-instar T. molitor larvae. The identification of the M. majus isolated from South African soil was verified using both morphological and molecular techniques. The occurrence of M. majus in the South African soil environment had not previously been reported.
- ItemCover crop management in vineyards of the Lower Orange River region, South Africa. 2, Effect on plant parasitic nematodes(SASEV, 2008-10) Addison, Pia; Fourie, J. C.This study was conducted as part of a larger investigation into the effect of management practices on selected sown cover crops and the effects thereof on grapevine performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these cover crops on plant parasitic nematode populations under natural field conditions. The trial site was in an own-rooted Sultanina vineyard situated in the Lower Orange River of the Northern Cape Province. Three management practices were applied selectively to ten cover crop species, with two control treatments consisting of weeds. Nematodes were monitored for a period of four years. 'Saia' oats were indicated as being poor hosts to both root-knot and root-lesion nematodes, while 'Overberg' oats showed poor host status against ring nematodes. 'Midmar' ryegrass and 'Paraggio' medic were also poor hosts for root-knot nematodes, while grazing vetch appeared to be a good host for root-knot nematodes. The most notable result from this study was the relatively high numbers of all three nematodes on the vine row, as opposed to the inter-row where cover crops were established. This indicates that vines were much better hosts for these nematodes than the cover crops. It is recommended that if more definite trends are to be observed, Brassica species, which have direct toxic/repellant effects on nematodes, should be tested.
- ItemEffect of contact pesticides on vine mealybug parasitoids, Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Girault) and Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)(SASEV, 2009-08) Mgocheki, N.; Addison, PiaAnagyrus species near pseudococci (Girault) and Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are well-known mealybug parasitoids. Both are proven biological control agents of Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards. These parasitoids are affected by some pesticides used for the control of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and P. ficus in vineyards. To establish which of the vineyard pesticides is more toxic to parasitoids, pesticide bioassays were carried in the laboratory using adult and pupal parasitoids. Fipronil and α-cypermethrin caused significant acute toxicity of both parasitoids. Low mortality was recorded for all these pesticides for parasitoids emerging from mummies indicating that the mummy case was an effective barrier to pesticides for parasitoids. Buprofezin, mancozeb and an insecticidal soap were not toxic to parasitoids in both bioassays. Some pesticides have far-reaching negative impacts on parasitoids of orchard and vineyard arthropod pests. A refinement on pest management strategies regarding method and timing of application of pesticides where parasitoids constitute part of the pest management program is essential.
- ItemFood preference and foraging activity of ants : recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits(Entomological Society of America, 2014-04-10) Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, PiaControl of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants’ foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species (Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile’s vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management.
- ItemGuiding classical biological control of an invasive mealybug using integrative taxonomy(Public Library of Science, 2015) Beltra, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Avalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Mari, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H.; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, AntoniaDelottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intraspecific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain.
- ItemHoneybush (Cyclopia spp.) phenology and associated arthropod diversity in the Overberg region, South Africa(AOSIS, 2019) Slabbert, Eleonore; Malgas, Rhoda; Veldtman, Ruan; Addison, PiaBackground: Cyclopia is endemic to regions of the Cape Floristic Region across the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa and is commonly known as honeybush. Honeybush has historically been used as an herbal tea, and has proven medicinal properties. Honeybush biomass and extracts are used in the functional foods and cosmetics sectors, both locally and overseas. The growing demand for honeybush calls for increased agricultural production and a shift away from the predominantly wild harvested supply. Objectives: The current study aimed to address the lack of baseline knowledge on honeybush phenology and its associated arthropod community to advance sustainable production of commercially valued plants in the genus. Method: The study was conducted on wild and cultivated Cyclopia species (Cyclopia maculata and Cyclopia genistoides) at respective sites in the Overberg region. Sampling took place from April 2014 to April 2015 using qualitative methods for recording seasonal honeybush phenology and suction sampling for aboveground arthropods. Focal insect taxa (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) were sorted and identified to family level and classified into functional feeding guilds. Results: Qualitative phenology observations of wild C. maculata and cultivated C. genistoides indicated a high level of congruency in seasonality of phenophase stages. Associated arthropod assemblages contained a diversity of families per functional feeding group, namely phytophagous, zoophagous and omnivorous taxa, with high seasonal variability. Conclusion: Findings highlight the complexity of ecological elements to be taken into consideration for ecologically sound honeybush cultivation. Outcomes can be applied to land management practices and governance policies promoting sustainable agroecosystems in honeybush production areas.
- ItemAn initial investigation of the effects of mulch layers on soil-dwelling arthropod assemblages in vineyards(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2013) Addison, Pia; Baauw, A. H.; Groenewald, G. A.The use of mulches is gaining worldwide attention in a number of different crops, including vineyards. However, the effects of mulches on arthropod assemblages are not well documented. We therefore conducted an initial investigation into the effects of three different types of mulch on arthropod assemblages in vineyards. Sampling took place from March to June 2010 on four wine grape farms in the Stellenbosch/ Paarl region using pitfall traps. All arthropods were identified to family level and classified into functional feeding groups. A total of forty different families of springtail (Collembola) and insect (Insecta) were recorded. Cluster analysis indicated a high degree of similarity between the mulch sites and also between the control sites, based on soil-dwelling arthropod diversity. Springtails and ants were most abundant and could be used as reference organisms for future, larger-scale studies on mulches.
- ItemMating compatibility and competitiveness between wild and laboratory strains of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) after radiation treatment(Florida Entomological Society, 2016) Mudavanhu, Pride; Addison, Pia; Carpenter, James E.; Conlong, Des E.The efficacy of the sterile insect technique (SIT) applied as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) depends on efficient transfer of sperm carrying dominant lethal mutations from sterile males to wild females. Success or failure of this strategy is therefore critically dependent on quality and ability of sterile males to search for and copulate with wild females. The African sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economic pest of sugarcane targeted for control in South Africa using an AW-IPM approach with a SIT component. As part of further steps towards development of the technique, levels of mating competitiveness and compatibility were assessed by observing the extent to which individuals from different populations interbreed when confined together under both laboratory and semi-field conditions. Three types of pair-wise competition experiments were conducted: non-irradiated laboratory adults vs. non-irradiated wild adults, irradiated (200 Gy) laboratory adults vs. non-irradiated wild adults, and non-irradiated laboratory adults vs. irradiated (200 Gy) laboratory adults. Data from these tests were used to generate indices for mating performance and measuring sexual compatibility between strains. Irrespective of trial location, wild moths did not discriminate against irradiated or laboratory-reared moths, indicating no negative effects on acceptability for mating due to laboratory rearing or radiation treatment. In general, irradiated males mated significantly more than their wild counterparts regardless of the type of female, which indicated that they were still as competitive as their wild counterparts. The mating indices generated showed no evidence of incipient pre-mating isolation barriers or sexual incompatibility with the wild strain. Data presented in this paper therefore indicate that there is scope for further development of the SIT as an addition to the arsenal of tactics available for AW-IPM of this economic pest.
- ItemThe metabolic costs of sexual signalling in the chirping katydid Plangia graminea (Serville) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are context dependent : cumulative costs add up fast(The Company of Biologists, 2017) Doubell, Marcee; Grant, Paul B. C.; Esterhuizen, Nanike; Bazelet, Corinna S.; Addison, Pia; Terblanche, John S.Katydids produce acoustic signals via stridulation, which they use to attract conspecific females for mating. However, direct estimates of the metabolic costs of calling to date have produced diverse cost estimates and are limited to only a handful of insect species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the metabolic cost of calling in an unstudied sub-Saharan katydid, Plangia graminea. Using wild-caught animals, we measured katydid metabolic rate using standard flow-through respirometry while simultaneously recording the number of calls produced. Overall, the metabolic rate during calling in P. graminea males was 60% higher than the resting metabolic rate (0.443±0.056 versus 0.279±0.028 ml CO₂ h⁻ ¹ g⁻ ¹), although this was highly variable among individuals. Although individual call costs were relatively inexpensive (ranging from 0.02 to 5.4% increase in metabolic rate per call), the individuals with cheaper calls called more often and for longer than those with expensive calls, resulting in the former group having significantly greater cumulative costs over a standard amount of time (9.5 h). However, the metabolic costs of calling are context dependent because the amount of time spent calling greatly influenced these costs in our trials. A power law function described this relationship between cumulative cost (y) and percentage increase per call (x) (y=130.21x⁻¹˙⁰⁶⁸, R2=0.858). The choice of metric employed for estimating energy costs (i.e. how costs are expressed) also affects the outcome and any interpretation of costs of sexual signalling. For example, the absolute, relative and cumulative metabolic costs of calling yielded strongly divergent estimates, and any fitness implications depend on the organism's energy budget and the potential trade-offs in allocation of resources that are made as a direct consequence of increased calling effort.
- ItemPost-harvest control of the grain chinch bug Macchiademus diplopterus (Heteroptera: Lygaiedae) on pears in the Western Cape Province, South Africa(Acta Horticulturae, 2005-04) Addison, PiaThe grain chinch bug (GCB) M. diplopterus is endemic to the Western Cape and as such is classified as a quarantine pest. The aim of this project was to evaluate post-harvest methods of control to ensure that packed fruit cartons destined for export are free of live GCB adults and acceptable to international quarantine standards. Cold storage trials were carried out at a commercial cold store in Ceres during three years. GCB adults were subjected to controlled atmosphere conditions (treatment) and regular atmosphere conditions (control) for a period of 6 weeks during 2001 and 10 weeks during 2002. The trials during 2001 and 2002 were carried out by packing GCB and pears into cardboard boxes with plastic liners. During 2003 the trial was repeated, but GCB and pears were placed directly into open plastic lug boxes without plastic liners. The results showed that GCB appear to be very well cold-adapted and that at least nine weeks will be required to achieve 100% mortality under controlled atmosphere conditions if pears are packed with plastic liners. A mortality of 100% was never achieved under regular atmosphere conditions for the duration of the trial. If no plastic liners were used, 100% mortality of GCB occurred one week earlier under controlled atmosphere conditions. Sufficient data was generated here to conclude that low temperature in itself was not sufficient to effectively sterilize pears from GCB infestations. The time required to achieve 100% mortality under controlled atmosphere conditions would probably compromise fruit quality or be unacceptably long.
- ItemThe sublethal effects of a systemic insecticide on the vine mealybug parasitoids anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (girault) and coccidoxenoides perminutus (timberlake) (hymenoptera : encyrtidae)(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2015-12) Mgocheki, N.; Addison, PiaImidacloprid is a systemic insecticide used for the control of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus. However, biological control of P. ficus is the primary alternate management method recommended for the integrated control of this pest. We therefore aimed to establish the detrimental effects on the development of Anagyrus. sp. near pseudococci and Coccidoxenoides perminutus feeding on imidacloprid-contaminated vine mealybugs as indicated by the subsequent emergence and survival of the F generation. The results imply that A. sp. near pseudococci and C. perminutus were equally susceptible to imidacloprid, based on probit analysis. However, survival was significantly different between the control and insecticide treatment for C. perminutus (χ2 = 23.80; d.f. = 3; p < 0.001), but not for A. sp. near pseudococci (χ2 = 5.07; d.f. = 3; p = 0.17). As this study was laboratory based, the effect of imidacloprid on populations of parasitoids in the field should be assessed further. Treatment recommendations to minimise the impact on parasitoids are discussed briefly.