Browsing Masters Degrees (Genetics) by Author "Badenhorst, Daleen"
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- ItemDevelopment of AFLP markers for Haliotis midae for linkage mapping(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-12) Badenhorst, Daleen; Roodt-Wilding, R.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Genetics.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Haliotis midae, is the only commercially important species of the six abalone species found in South African coastal waters and has become a lucrative commercial commodity. Wild stocks of H. midae are, however, no longer commercially sustainable due to a combination of environmental factors and poaching. The solution to the crisis is artificial production systems in the form of abalone farms. An abalone enhancement programme was initiated in South Africa in 2006, funded by industry and government. This programme focuses on the elucidation of the abalone genome and genetic factors contributing to increased productivity, thereby aiding the commercial production of abalone. The aims of this study, the first of its kind concerning H. midae, were to develop AFLPbased markers (specifically fluorescent AFLP analysis); to monitor the segregation of these markers in a single full-sib family and to use the markers and additional microsatellite markers to generate the first preliminary linkage map for H. midae. Genomic DNA of sufficient quality and purity for fluorescent AFLP analysis was obtained from 3.5-month-old H. midae juveniles. Preliminary linkage maps were constructed using AFLP and microsatellite markers segregating in an F1 family following a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. Twelve AFLP primer combinations, producing 573 segregating peaks, and 10 microsatellite markers were genotyped in the parents and 108 progeny of the mapping family. Of the 573 segregating AFLP peaks genotyped, 241 segregated in a 1:1 ratio and 332 in a 3:1 ratio. Of these AFLP markers, 90 segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio and 164 segregated according to the expected 3:1 Mendelian ratio at the P = 0.05 level and were used for linkage analysis. Of the 10 microsatellite markers genotyped, nine were informative for linkage mapping analysis. Preliminary male and female genetic linkage maps were developed using markers segregating in the female or male parent. A total of 12 and 10 linkage groups were detected for the female and male maps respectively. The female map covered 1473.5cM and consisted of 56 markers, and the male map covered 738.9cM consisting of 30 markers. Markers with segregation distortion were observed as previously reported in other abalone species and potential homology between one of the linkage groups of the male map and two of the linkage groups of the female map were identified using the 3:1 segregating AFLP markers. In conclusion, the genetic linkage map presented here, despite the fact that it has relatively low genome coverage and low marker density, forms an ideal starting point for more detailed study of the H. midae genome and will provide a scaffold for basic and applied studies in abalone. A high-density linkage map of H. midae should in future be developed with additional co-dominant molecular markers, such as microsatellites, to improve the transferability of the linkage map between different laboratories and among populations. A high-density linkage map will facilitate the mapping of QTL of commercially important traits (i.e. growth) and future MAS breeding programmes.