Identifying and managing the social, economic and environmental effects of gated developments in Jamestown, Stellenbosch

Van Wyk, Carlu (2016-03)

Thesis (MPA)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: As urbanisation increases, crime and the feeling of insecurity are becoming more prevalent in South African towns. As a consequence, exclusionary developments have become an important form of development. Gated developments are dramatically altering the way in which towns function. Gated developments do not only have social and economic effects, but also affects the natural environment in many ways. For these reasons, gated developments do not promote sustainable evelopment and are mostly undesirable. Although there are several fields of study that aim to address these effects, there is no single body of literature that looks at a combination of effects and ways to manage or address these effects. This study aims to fill this gap by assisting to (i) provide a theoretical base and historical perspective of gated developments in South Africa; (ii) provide insight regarding the factors that have driven the popularity of these developments; (iii) identify the social, economic and environmental effects that arise as a consequence of the presence of gated development in the Western Cape, and more specifically Jamestown, Stellenbosch; (iv) provide practical examples of these effects by looking at case studies of gated developments in Jamestown; (v) identify current management tools with which to address these effects; and (vi) explore the best use of the management tools identified in this study to the identified effects of gated developments in Jamestown. This study makes use of a literature review, as well as an empirical study where existing documents (such as environmental impact ssessments and spatial development frameworks) are analysed and qualitative and quantitative data are used to explore a number of case studies. From the case studies and additional research it was evident that there is an overlap between laws, policies and plans at the various spheres of government, together with an overall absence of policies with which to manage several of the effects of gated developments. It was further found that in some cases such developments should not be approved, rather than simply trying to manage the effects after these developments have been approved. During the planning stage, more coordination between stakeholders are required and this needs to be converted into better implementation of the laws, policies and plans at ground level. Existing management tools have the ability to address several of the social, economic and environmental effects; however, some management tools must be amended to more effectively address case specific effects. Only if the above mentioned aspects are addressed, can sustainable development be integrated into development in South Africa.

AFRIKAANS OPSOMMING: Soos wat verstedeliking toeneem, neem misdaad en die gevoel van onveiligheid toe in Suid Afrikaanse dorpe. As gevolg het uitsluitende ontwikkelings ‘n belangrike vorm van ontwikkeling geword. Omheinde ontwikkelings het die manier waarop stede funksioneer dramaties verander. Omheinde ontwikkelings het nie net sosiale en ekonomiese gevolge nie, maar dit affekteer ook die natuurlike omgewing op verskeie maniere. Vir hierdie redes bevorder omheinde ontwikkelings nie volhoubare ontwikkeling nie en is dus grootliks ongewens. Alhoewel daar verskeie studierigtings is wat daarop gemik is om hierdie effekte aan te spreek, is daar geen enkele liggaam van literatuur wat na ‘n kombinasie van die verskillende gevolge kyk en dan maniere uitlig om hierdie effekte te bestuur of aan te spreek nie. Hierdie studie het ten doel om hierdie gaping te vul deur te help om (i) ‘n teoretiese basis en histories perspektief van omheinde ontwikkelings in Suid Afrika te bied; (ii) om insig te verskaf oor watter faktore die gewildheid van hierdie tipe ontwikkelings aandryf; (iii) om die sosiale, ekonomiese en omgewings effekte wat ontstaan as gevolg van die Teenwoordigheid van omheinde ontwikkelings in die Wes-Kaap, en meer spesifiek Jamestown in Stellenbosch, te identifiseer; (iv) om praktiese voorbeelde van hierdie effekte te voorsien deur te kyk na gevallestudies van omheinde ontwikkelings in Jamestown; (v) om huidige bestuursmetodes waarmee hierdie effekte aangespreek kan word, te Identifiseer; en (vi) om die beste gebruik van die bestuursmetode wat uitgelig is in hierdie studie op die geidentifiseerde gevolge van omheinde ontwikkelings in Jamestown te ondersoek. Hierdie studie maak gebruik van ‘n literatuurstudie en ‘n empiriese studie met die analise van bestaande dokumente (soos omgewingsimpakstudies en ruimtelike ontwikkelingsraamwerke) en waar kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe data gebruik word om ‘n aantal gevallestudies te ondersoek. Uit die gevallestudies en addisionele navorsing was dit duidelik dat daar ‘n oorvleueling tussen die wette, beleide en planne op die verskillende vlakke van regering is, tesame met ‘n algehele afwesigheid van beleid om sommige van die effekte van omheinde ontwikkelings mee aan te spreek. Dit is verder bevind dat in sekere gevalle sulke ontwikkelings voorkom behoort te word, eerder as om slegs die effekte te probeer bestuur na die goedkeuring van sulke tipe ontwikkelings. Tydens die beplanning stadium word meer koördinering benodig tussen belanghebbendes en dit moet dan oorgedra word in beter implementering van die wette, beleide en planne op grondvlak. Bestaande bestuurs metodes het die vermoë om verskeie van die sosiale, ekonomiese en omgewings effekte aan te spreek, maar daar is steeds ‘n tekort aan sekere bestuurs metodes waarmee spesifieke gevalle aangespreek kan word. Slegs indien die bogenoemde aspekte aangespreek word, kan volhoubare ontwikkeling bevorder word in die ontwikkelings veld in Suid Afrika.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98692
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