Normative centre of pressure values for single leg standing and tandem stance in children between the ages of six and ten years : a pilot study

Nevin, Michaela (2016-03)

Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction Balance in children, both static and dynamic, is a skill required for normal motor development. Postural stability, measured by force plate derived centre of pressure (COP) data is used to infer static balance. A baseline normative reference database for age and gender will allow for more accurate assessment of children’s static balance development and ability. Objective To describe age and gender differences in postural stability for single leg standing and tandem stance in typically developed children aged six to ten years, and to provide recommendations for future, larger normative database studies. Methodology Using a descriptive study design, a convenience sample of 28 children each performed five balance tasks while standing on a dynamic pressure mapping device: left and right single leg standing with eyes open and eyes closed, and tandem stance. Centre of pressure range of movement and COP velocity parameters were used to describe postural stability. Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine significant differences in COP parameters between different age groups and gender. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results For single leg standing with eyes open, significant differences were found between boys and girls for mean COP velocity in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction (p=< 0.02) and mean COP velocity combined. Significant differences in mean COP velocity AP were also demonstrated between younger (6-8 yrs) and older (9-10) girls (p=< 0.03) No significant differences were found in single leg standing with eyes closed, and tandem stance. Conclusion The significant differences in COP velocity AP during single leg standing with eyes open between the older and younger girls illustrates age related Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za iii improvement in postural stability via slowing of COP velocity with age. This maturation of postural stability was not demonstrated for boys possibly because the boys, as a group, performed better than the girls. The lack of any significant differences between age groups and gender during tandem stance may be attributed to a ceiling effect as the task was not challenging enough. The increased difficulty of performing single leg standing with eyes closed was illustrated by lesser successful trials, larger COP range of movement and faster COP mean velocity across the age groups and genders.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding Beide staties en dinamies balans is kinders is ‘n vaardigheid wat benodig word vir normale motoriese ontwikkeling. Posturale stabiliteit, soos gemeet deur drukmiddelpunt (DMP) data afkomstig van kragplaatmetings, word gebruik om afleidings te maak met betrekking tot balans. ‘n Basislyn normatiewe verwysingsdatabasis vir ouderdom en geslag sal ‘n meer akkurate assessering van kinders se statiese balansontwikkeling en –vermoë te weeg bring. Doelwit Om ouderdoms- en geslagsverskille in posturale stabiliteit vir een-been staan en tandemstaan in tipies ontwikkelde kinders, ses tot tien jaar oud, te beskryf, en om aanbevelings vir toekomstige, groter normatiewe databasisstudies te voorsien. Metodologie Deur gebruik te maak van 'n beskrywende studie-ontwerp het 'n gerieflikheidssteekproef van 28 kinders wat elk vyf balanstake uitgevoer terwyl hulle op 'n dinamiese drukkartering toestel gestaan het; linker en regter eenbeen staan met oop oë en geslote oë, en tandemstaan. Drukmiddelpunt omvang van beweging en DMP snelheid parameters is gebruik om posturale stabiliteit te beskryf. Mann-Whitney toetse was gebruik om betekenisvolle verskille in DMP parameters tussen verskillende ouderdomsgroepe en geslagte te bepaal. Die vlak van betekenisvolheid was vasgestel op p ≤ 0.05. Resultate Vir een-been staan met oop oë is beduidende verskille gevind tussen die seuns en meisies vir gemiddelde DMP snelheid in die anterior-posterior (AP) rigting (p = <0,02) en vir die gemiddelde DMP snelheid gekombineer. Beduidende verskille in die gemiddelde DMP snelheid AP tussen jonger (6-8 jaar) en ouer (9-10) meisies (p = <0,03) is ook gevind. Geen beduidende verskille is in een-been staan met geslote oë, en tandemstaan gevind nie. Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za v Gevolgtrekking Die beduidende verskille in DMP snelheid AP tydens een-been staan met oop oë tussen die ouer en jonger meisies illustreer ‘n ouderdomsverwante verbetering in posturale stabiliteit deur vertraging van DMP snelheid met ouderdom. Hierdie rypwording van posturale stabiliteit is nie in seuns gevind nie moontlik omdat die seuns, as 'n groep, beter presteer het as die meisies. Die gebrek aan enige beduidende verskille tussen ouderdomsgroepe en geslag in tandemstaan, kan toegeskryf word aan 'n plafon-effek siende dat die taak nie uitdagend genoeg was nie. Die verhoogde moeilikheidsgraad om een-been staan met geslote oë uit te voer, is geïllustreer deur minder suksesvolle proewe, groter DMP omvang van beweging en vinniger DMP gemiddelde snelheid oor die ouderdomsgroepe en geslagte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98672
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