Intraspecific associations of individual brown-headed parrots (Poicephalus cryptoxanthus)
Brown-headed parrots (Poicephalus cryptoxanthus) are often seen in large feeding flocks during summer and in pairs during winter. This has led to the belief that pair bonds within the species are ephemeral, lasting as long as the breeding season. Observations of group composition and association indices are used to show that this view is mistaken. Brown-headed parrots are monogamous, seasonal flock-formers. The selection pressures involved in monogamy involve ecological constraints concerning the costs and benefits of mating systems and parental care. Some of these constraints are discussed in the context of the life history strategy of the brown-headed parrot.